Photons with energy higher than the 'band gap' of the semiconductor absorbing them give rise to what are known as hot electrons. The extra energy is lost very fast, as it is converted into heat so it does not contribute to the voltage. University of Groningen Professor of Photophysics and Optoelectronics Maria Antonietta Loi has now found a material in which these hot electrons retain their high energy levels for much longer.
In research published today in Advanced Materials, a group of researchers led by UC Riverside's David Kisailus has identified a unique structure that wraps around the mantis shrimp's club to protect it from self-inflicted damage as it crushes hard-shelled prey. The finding will help Kisailus' team develop ultra-strong materials for the aerospace and sports industries.
Shale gas is one of least sustainable options for producing electricity, according to new research from The University of Manchester.
In the fight to cure thromboinflammatory diseases, one of the target molecules is thrombin, a protein that promotes inflammation and can cause blood clots. However, inhibiting thrombin too much can lead to uncontrolled bleeding, limiting the use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Now, researchers from BIDMC and the Wyss Institute have found that a class of small molecule called 'parmodulins' can reduce inflammation without compromising normal blood clotting, making parmodulins attractive candidates for new, safer drugs.
Roughly 10 percent of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms contain the genetic code for manufacturing a back-up enzyme, called iron iron-only nitrogenase, to do their job. New research reveals that this enzyme allows these microorganisms to convert nitrogen gas to ammonia and carbon dioxide into methane at the same time. This enzymatic pathway is a previously unknown route for the natural biological production of methane.
A team led by David Mooney at Harvard's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) is now reporting in Nature Biotechnology a material-based T-cell-expansion method using APC-mimetic biomaterial scaffolds, which helps achieve greater expansion of primary mouse and human T cells than existing methods.
Scientists at the University of Washington announced that they have built and tested a new biomaterial-based delivery system -- known as a hydrogel -- that will encase a desired cargo and dissolve to release its freight only when specific physiological conditions are met.
You don't have to be perfectly organized to pull off a wave, according to University of Chicago scientists. Using a set of gyroscopes linked together, physicists explored the behavior of a material whose structure is arranged randomly, instead of an orderly lattice. They found they could set off one-way ripples around the edges, much like spectators in a sports arena -- a 'topological wave,' characteristic of a particularly unusual state of matter.
A team of researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) has demonstrated a novel 3-D printing method that yields unprecedented control of the arrangement of short fibers embedded in polymer matrices. They used this additive manufacturing technique to program fiber orientation within epoxy composites in specified locations, enabling the creation of structural materials that are optimized for strength, stiffness, and damage tolerance.
TUAT researchers have achieved the new synthetic route of conjugated tetraenes from inexpensive and easily available 1,3-butadiene and substituted acetylenes by a one-pot approach under mild conditions. This is the most straightforward synthetic method ever reported. This new method has been published in the ACS journal, Organometallics.