Researchers at Leipzig University and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) have compiled the world's most comprehensive list of known plant species. It contains 1,315,562 names of vascular plants, thus extending the number by some 70,000 - equivalent to about 20%. The researchers have also succeeded in clarifying 181,000 hitherto unclear species names. The data set has now been published in Scientific Data. This marks the culmination of ten years of intensive research work.
Astrophysicists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) joined the international research team for explaining the difference in the results of observation of the comet 41P/ Tuttle - Giacobini - Kresak. Researchers believe that data obtained by three independent teams are complementary and its complex analysis helps to unravel the mystery of dust chemical composition of comet 41P and other conundrums of the Universe. A related article appears in Astronomy & Astrophysics.
Despite their reputation, rats are surprisingly sociable and regularly help each other out. Researchers at the Universities of Göttingen, Bern and St Andrews have shown that a rat just has to smell another rat that is engaged in helpful behaviour to increase their own helpfulness. This is the first study to show that just the smell of a cooperating rat is enough to trigger a helpful response. Research appeared in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.
An international team of about 100 scientists of the Borexino Collaboration, including particle physicist Andrea Pocar at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, report in Nature this week detection of neutrinos from the sun, directly revealing for the first time that the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) fusion-cycle is at work in our sun.
The quantum sensing abilities of nanodiamonds can be used to improve the sensitivity of paper-based diagnostic tests, potentially allowing for earlier detection of diseases such as HIV, according to a study led by UCL researchers in the i-sense McKendry group.
Scientists who are members of the Borexino Collaboration have provided the first experimental proof of the occurrence of the so-called CNO cycle in the Sun: They have managed to directly detect the distinctive neutrinos generated during this fusion process. This is an important milestone on the route to better understanding the fusion processes that occur in the Sun. The Borexino Collaboration's findings have been published in the latest issue of the journal Nature.
Researchers from the Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena University and University Hospital have developed an optical toolbox to build microscopes for a few hundred euros that deliver high-resolution images comparable to commercial microscopes that cost up to a thousand times more. The 3D printed open-source modular system can be combined in the way the research question requires -- from the observation of living organisms in the incubator to a toolbox for education.
For the first time, the international team was able to directly observe neutrinos from this cycle (CNO neutrinos) with the Borexino detector in the Laboratori Nazionali in the Gran Sasso Massif (Italy). This milestone represents the fulfilment of a long-cherished scientific dream for the Dresden neutrino researcher Prof Kai Zuber and his team at the Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics.
"We already know how to shoot electrons ballistically through one-dimensional nanowires made from these oxide materials," explains Levy. "What is different here is that we have changed the environment for the electrons, forcing them to weave left and right as they travel. This motion changes the properties of the electrons, giving rise to new behavior."
Computational chemists from St Petersburg University and the Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences have developed a new strategy for using calcium acetylide in the synthesis of organic compounds. The researchers proposed a new approach by analysing the interaction of calcium acetylide with water and dimethyl sulfoxide on the atomic scale.