Scientists today announced a major new finding about how matter behaves in the extreme conditions of the sun's atmosphere. Their work has shed new light on the exotic but poorly understood 'fourth state of matter,' known as plasma, which could hold the key to developing safe, clean and efficient nuclear energy generators on Earth.
'A major aspect of our research is that it just really illustrates how complex all these different components are going on inside a person's body,' said Andrew Ford.
Indiana University researchers have synthesized a powerful new molecule to trap chloride salts. The technology has the potential to reduce its seepage into freshwater systems, which is a threat to drinkable water across the globe.
Researchers at Osaka University developed a new method that uses piezoelectric resonance to improve the manufacture of highly sensitive hydrogen sensors. By optimizing the gaps between palladium nanoparticles in the devices, they were able to increase the sensitivity by a factor of 12 over palladium nanoparticles fabricated by previous methods. The work in this study is important for the development of new sensing devices that are capable of detecting hydrogen at low concentration.
Metallic nanoparticle ensembles are capable of emitting short bunches of electrons when irradiated by powerful laser pulses of femtosecond (1 fs = 10-15 s) duration. Scientists at Lobachevsky University have long been studying the plasmon effect -- the excitation by light of collective electron oscillations in nanoparticles and the amplification of the light field associated with these oscillations in the vicinity of the nanoparticle, which plays the main role in this process.
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology and Keio University investigated the excitation and detection of photogenerated coherent phonons in polar semiconductor GaAs through an ultrafast dual pump-probe laser for quantum interferometry.
Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory studying super-cold states of water discovered a pathway to the unexpected formation of dense, crystalline phases of ice thought to exist beyond Earth's limits. Their findings, reported in Nature, challenge accepted theories and could lead to better understanding of ice found on other planets, moons and elsewhere in space.
Can the properties of composite materials be predicted? Empa scientists have mastered this feat and thus can help achieve research objectives faster. This leads, for instance, to better recycling techniques and electrically conductive synthetic materials for the solar industry.
Researchers at MIT and elsewhere have found a way to manipulate the positions of individual atoms on a graphene sheet, which could be a first step to new quantum computing and sensing devices.
Physicists have demonstrated a new way to obtain the essential details of an isolated quantum system through direct observation. The method gives information about the likelihood of finding atoms at specific locations in the system with unprecedented spatial resolution far better than an optical microscope can provide. With this technique, scientists can obtain details on a scale of tens of nanometers -- smaller than the width of a virus.