Smog is a problem. But the knowledge about its constituents -- no longer. Researchers from several leading Warsaw scientific institutions have joined forces and developed a new, extremely precise method for the chemical analysis of suspended particulate matter. The method, easily adaptable in many modern laboratories, not only determines the chemical composition of compounds, but even recognizes changes in the spatial distribution of atoms in molecules.
In a discovery that points to potential new antibiotic medicines, scientists from Rice University and the University of Michigan have deciphered the workings of a common but little-understood bacterial switch that cuts off protein production.
Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have developed new technologies that can be used to convert industrial plants to produce fossil-free heat, electricity, fuel, chemicals and materials. The technical potential is enormous -- using only Sweden's currently existing power plants, renewable fuels equivalent to 10 percent of the world's aviation fuel could be produced.
A major new analysis reveals the likely cause of most cases of childhood leukaemia, following more than a century of controversy about its origins. Professor Mel Greaves assessed the most comprehensive body of evidence ever collected on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). He concludes the disease is caused through a two-step process of genetic mutation and exposure to infection that means it may be preventable with treatments to stimulate or 'prime' the immune system in infancy.
Furanosteroids, represented by wortmannin and viridin, are a special group of highly-oxygenated steroids featured by a furan ring. They are well-known nanomolar-potency inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and widely used in biological studies. Here, we report the first identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster for demethoxyviridin in symbiotic fungi. Structure-activity analyses of the biosynthetic intermediates revealed that the 3-keto group, the C1β-OH, and the aromatic ring C are important for PI3K inhibition.
Researchers have identified a brain receptor and signaling pathway that spurs beige fat cells to burn energy, revealing a possible target for obesity therapies in humans.
University of Groningen biotechnologists used a computational method to redesign aspartase and convert it to a catalyst for asymmetric hydroamination reactions. Their colleagues in China scaled up the production of this enzyme and managed to produce kilograms of very pure building blocks for pharmaceuticals and other bioactive compounds. This successful proof of principle study was published in Nature Chemical Biology on May 21.
Research published in the journal Clinical Science suggests that an immune signalling protein called interleukin (IL)-26 is increased among chronic smokers with lung disease and this involvement reveals disease mechanisms of interest for developing more effective therapy for these hard-to-treat patients.
An international team has discovered how to exploit defects in nanoscale and microscale diamonds and potentially enhance the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance systems while eliminating the need for their costly and bulky superconducting magnets.
A major route toward creating effective vaccines against dengue virus and Zika involves the E protein that covers the surface of each viral particle. But creating such a vaccine has proven difficult for a number of reasons. Now UNC School of Medicine researchers have delineated the details of one major barrier to a promising vaccine. It's something we all have -- a natural body temperature of about 98.6 degrees.