Patients with Parkinson's disease are treated with levodopa, which is converted into dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain. In a study published on Jan. 18, in the journal Nature Communications, scientists from the University of Groningen show that gut bacteria can metabolize levodopa into dopamine. As dopamine cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, this makes the medication less effective -- even in the presence of inhibitors that should prevent the conversion of levodopa.
How do plants space out their roots? A Japanese research team has identified a peptide and its receptor that help lateral roots to grow with the right spacing. The findings were published on Dec. 20, 2018 in the online edition of Developmental Cell.
Friedrich Simmel und Aurore Dupin, researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM), have for the first time created artificial cell assemblies that can communicate with each other. The cells, separated by fatty membranes, exchange small chemical signaling molecules to trigger more complex reactions, such as the production of RNA and other proteins.
As the population of a fir tree in China dwindles, researchers are racing to replicate its cancer-fighting molecules.
Severe burns can leave physical and psychological scars, especially in children. When a burn patient enters the clinic, doctors use factors such as the depth and size of the burn, as well as the time required for skin healing--or re-epithelialization--to determine the best course of treatment. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Journal of Proteome Research have found another, possibly more accurate way to classify burn severity: analyzing proteins in blister fluid.
Genetic variants damaging neurotransmitter receptor implicated in development of schizophrenia. Genetic variants which prevent a neurotransmitter receptor from working properly have been implicated in the development of schizophrenia, according to research by the UCL Genetics Institute.
An international group of toxicologists, which includes scientists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), continues to study the potential risks of genetically modified (GM) products. Scientists have published a review of research papers on the fate of the DNA derived from GM food and feed entering the human body and animals. The article published in the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology.
A researcher at the UPV/EHU has participated in a study describing what it is during the early stages of Alzheimer's that triggers the loss of dynamics and subsequent impairment of the dendritic spines, the compartments of the neurons responsible for receiving nerve impulses from other neurons. The role played by the actin cytoskeleton of these compartments and how it responds in the presence of beta-amyloid peptides, the component most commonly associated with Alzheimer's, have been described.
Scientists at Newcastle University have developed a biological system which lets cells form a desired shape by molding their surrounding material -- in the first instance creating a self-curving cornea. The astonishing video shows the cornea molding itself into a bowl-like structure over the course of 5 days.
Scientists at Rutgers and universities in Russia, Poland and England have solved a nearly 30-year mystery -- how the molecular machinery works in an enzyme that makes a potent antibiotic. The findings, which appear in the journal Molecular Cell, provide the tools to design new antibiotics, anticancer drugs and other therapeutics.