The insect moves droplet of saliva in and out of its mouth to promote evaporation and lower body temperature, according to study by researchers in Brazil.
A new mechanism for regulating stem cells in the intestine of fruit flies has been discovered by researchers at Stockholm University. In addition, it was discovered that a certain protein can slow the growth of tumors in intestinal tissue. A better understanding of these mechanisms can teach us more about how diseases in human intestines occur, as well as contribute to the development of new medicine to cure them. The results are now being published in the scientific journal Stem Cell Reports.
The Bajau, a population of sea nomads in Indonesia, are known for their ability to conduct prolonged and repeated deep dives while holding their breath. A new analysis by University of Copenhagen and UC Berkeley scientists shows that they evolved this ability by enlarging their spleen about 50 percent. A genetic analysis links this to upregulated thyroid hormone. This is a unique adaptation to living in a low-oxygen environment, the researchers say.
With a standard electron microscope, only dead T cells can be studied. Therefore, it is very hard to figure out the inner workings of the cell. New microscopy techniques, making it possible to study living T cells, have now led to surprising results: while it has been generally believed that T cell receptors must interact with one another for effective immune-signaling, the new study shows: T cell receptors act alone.
Researchers found significant difference in the molecular machinery that turns on and off gene expression between cerebellum and prefrontal cortex of a mouse brain. Their results provide clues to the molecular apparatus that is involved in conscious thinking in brains.
One of the most significant impairments of the quality of life after a chemotherapy is infertility. Researchers of the Goethe University and the University Tor Vergata in Rome have now identified the mechanism of chemotherapy-induced infertility in females.
Correct protein localization is crucial for many fundamental cellular processes. LMU physicists have now asked how to confer robustness against variations in protein concentrations on pattern formation mechanisms.
Nagoya University-centered researchers determined the first crystal structure the gastric proton pump H+, K+-ATPase responsible for acidifying gastric juice down to pH1. The team presented crystal structures of the H+, K+-ATPase in complex with two blockers, vonoprazan and SCH28080, at 2.8 Å resolution. This provides important information for refinement of existing drugs and discovery of new drugs. It also reveals the underlying mechanisms of how the highly acidic environment in the stomach is created.
Machine learning algorithms excel at finding complex patterns within big data, so researchers often use them to make predictions. Researchers are pushing the technology beyond finding correlations to help uncover hidden cause-effect relationships and drive scientific discoveries. At the University of South Florida, researchers are integrating machine learning techniques into their work studying proteins. One of their challenges has been a lack of methods to identify cause-effect relationships in data obtained from molecular dynamics simulations.
Predicting and monitoring cardiovascular disease is often expensive and tenuous, involving high-tech equipment and intrusive procedures. However, a new method developed by researchers at USC Viterbi School of Engineering offers a better way. By coupling a machine learning model with a patient's pulse data, they are able to measure a key risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and arterial stiffness, using just a smart phone.