Human emissions of the potentially harmful trace metal vanadium into Earth's atmosphere have spiked sharply since the start of the 21st century due in large part to industry's growing use of heavy oils, tar sands, bitumen and petroleum coke for energy, a new Duke study finds. These emissions now exceed those from all natural sources combined. Growing evidence suggests exposure to vanadium-rich aerosols can impair respiratory functions and exacerbate conditions such as asthma or COPD.
LiU researcher Klas Tybrandt has put forward a theoretical model that explains the coupling between ions and electrons in the widely used conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS. The model has profound implications for applications in printed electronics, energy storage in paper, and bioelectronics.
A team from Ural Federal University (UrFU) developed a new efficient technology of electrical power generation from bituminous coal. The results of the study were published in International Journal of Hydrogen Energy.
Chemical engineering professor Daniel Esposito has developed a novel photovoltaic-powered electrolysis device that can operate as a stand-alone platform that floats on open water. His floating PV-electrolyzer can be thought of as a 'solar fuels rig' that bears some resemblance to deep-sea oil rigs -- but it would produce hydrogen fuel from sunlight and water instead of extracting petroleum from beneath the sea floor.
Carbon capture could help coal plants reduce emissions if economic challenges can be overcome. Turning captured carbon into a useable product is one solution. Scientists have developed an efficient process for turning captured carbon dioxide into syngas that can be used to make fuels and chemicals. Results were published Dec. 14 by Green Chemistry. "For the first time it was demonstrated that syngas can be directly produced from captured CO2," the researchers wrote.
Researchers at University of Tokyo's Institute of Industrial Science report the first direct observation of atoms moving in liquid by collaborating with National Institute of Materials Science. Using scanning transmission electron microscopy, they find that gold ions diffuse through ionic liquid by a phenomenon they describe as a 'cage-jump.' Image analysis determined the diffusion coefficient and activation energy of the diffusion. Quantification of liquid at the atomic level is expected to contribute to the design of energy efficient devices.
The interaction of protein shell and active centre in hydrogen-producing enzymes is crucial for the efficiency of biocatalysts. A team from Ruhr-Universität Bochum and the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion in Mülheim an der Ruhr specifically analysed the role of hydrogen bonds in certain enzymes from green algae, the hydrogenases. The groups, which cooperate in the Excellence Cluster Resolv, reported the results in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
QUT robotics researchers have developed new technology to equip underground mining vehicles to navigate autonomously through dust, camera blur and bad lighting.
Researchers have created a catalyst capable of reducing pollutants at the lower temperatures expected in advanced engines.
QUT robotics researchers have developed new technology to equip underground mining vehicles to navigate autonomously through dust, camera blur and bad lighting. Using mathematics and biologically-inspired algorithms, the technology uses vehicle-mounted cameras to track the location of the vehicle in underground tunnels to within meters.