Marine seismic surveys used in petroleum exploration could cause a two to three-fold increase in mortality of adult and larval zooplankton, new research published in leading science journal Nature Ecology and Evolution has found. Scientists from IMAS and the Centre for Marine Science and Technology (CMST) at Curtin University studied the impact of commercial seismic surveys on zooplankton populations by carrying out tests using seismic air guns in the ocean off Southern Tasmania.
Waves deep within the ocean play an important role in establishing ocean circulation, arising when tidal currents oscillate over an uneven ocean bottom. The internal waves generated by this process stir and mix the ocean, bringing cold, deep water to the surface to be warmed by the sun. This week in Physics of Fluids, investigators how to tell which way internal waves will go. The proposed theory unifies several previously understood explanations of wave propagation.
The West Antarctic Ice Sheet, a landbound mass of ice larger than Mexico, experienced substantial surface melt through the austral summer of 2015-2016 during one of the largest El Niño events of the past 50 years, according to scientists who had been conducting the first comprehensive atmospheric measurements in the region since the 1960s.
Understanding slow-slip earthquakes in subduction zone areas may help researchers understand large earthquakes and the creation of tsunamis, according to an international team of researchers that used data from instruments placed on the seafloor and in boreholes east of the Japanese coast.
The classic red teardrop of magma underneath a volcano peak is too simplistic. Magma chambers are chemically and physically complex structures that new evidence, published this week in Science, suggests may be cooler and more solid than expected.
In California, seasonal changes in large-scale water cycles modestly influence small-scale quake activity, a new study reports.
California's earthquake faults continually accumulate stress until they fail in an earthquake. UC Berkeley seismologists studied the impact of the flexing of Earth's crust under the load of winter rains and subsequent unloading during summer drought, and found that the up and down movement of the mountains changes the stresses on the state's faults, making them fail slightly more often as the snows melt and the rivers drain in late summer and early fall.
With high-pressure experiments at DESY's X-ray light source PETRA III and other facilities, a research team has solved a long standing riddle in the analysis of meteorites from Moon and Mars. The study can explain why different versions of silica can coexist in meteorites, although they normally require vastly different conditions to form. The results also mean that previous assessments of conditions at which meteorites have been formed have to be carefully re-considered.
A team of researchers, led by Dr. Rhett Butler, geophysicist at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UHM), re-examined historical evidence around the Pacific and discovered the origin of the tsunami that hit Sanriku, Japan in 1586 -- a mega-earthquake from the Aleutian Islands that broadly impacted the north Pacific. Until now, this was considered an orphan tsunami, a historical tsunami without an obvious local earthquake source, likely originating far away.
The Arctic Ocean was once a gigantic freshwater lake. Only after the land bridge between Greenland and Scotland had submerged far enough did vast quantities of salt water pour in from the Atlantic.