Glia affected by Huntington's disease respond by tuning down synapse genes, which has a protective effect.
Promising findings from a study coordinated by a research team of the University of Trento on medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children affecting the central nervous system. For the first time, scientists have grown organoids in the laboratory to simulate tumor tissue, and have identified the type of cell from which the tumor may originate.
The culprit behind a large number of cancerous tumors is known to be a certain protein. Now for the first time, research shows that the same protein is the cause of several rare brain syndromes.
The magnetic sense of migratory birds such as European robins is thought to be based on a specific light-sensitive protein in the eye. In the current edition of the journal Nature, a team centred at the Universities of Oldenburg (Germany) and Oxford (UK) demonstrate that the protein cryptochrome 4, found in birds' retinas, is sensitive to magnetic fields and could well be the long-sought magnetic sensor.
Researchers have developed a method to combine three brain-imaging techniques to more precisely capture the timing and location of brain responses to a stimulus. Their study is the first to combine the three widely used technologies - fMRI, EEG and EROS - for simultaneous imaging of brain activity.
A team of scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Food Systems Biology at the Technical University of Munich has now discovered that the odorant receptor OR5K1 is specialized to recognize pyrazines in both humans and domesticated animals. These are volatile substances that contribute to the typical odor of many vegetables or are formed when food is heated. In addition, pyrazines also play a role as signaling substances in intra- or interspecific communication.
Researchers have shown why people with mental health disorders, including anorexia and panic disorders, experience physical signals differently.
Acrylamide, which is extensively used in industries, causes peripheral neuropathy or encephalopathy. Now, scientists from Japan examined the response against oxidative stress in acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity and found that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of the immune system and response to oxidative stress, was at the center of this toxicity. They found that Nrf2 plays a protective role by increasing the expression of protective genes and decreasing that of pro-inflammatory genes.
Biologists from the Plant Physiology Laboratory at the University of Guam and neuroscientists from the Experimental Medicine Program at The University of British Columbia have published an update on the reputed environmental toxins that have been suspected of being involved in mammal neurodegeneration.
In the international prospective multicenter crossover LEADER-75 trial, comparison of reduced-dose gadobutrol and standard-dose gadoterate versus unenhanced imaging demonstrated noninferiority using 20% margin for three primary efficacy measures; mean readings differed by less than 1%, supporting equivalence using a narrow ±5% margin. Various secondary variables also supported non-inferiority of reduced-dose gadobutrol.