In two new studies on life in the seafloor of the Guaymas Basin, in the Gulf of California, Marine Biological Laboratory scientist Emil Ruff and collaborators show that distinct regions within the Basin harbor specially adapted microorganisms; discover new microbial inhabitants of this deep-sea community; and suggest how the community may be dramatically influencing carbon cycling in the hot seafloor sediments.
New analysis of Venus' surface shows evidence of tectonic motion in the form of crustal blocks that have jostled against each other like broken chunks of pack ice. Published in the PNAS, the study -- which includes contributions by Baylor University planetary physicist Peter James, Ph.D. -- found that the movement of these blocks could indicate that Venus is still geologically active and give scientists insight into both exoplanet tectonics and the earliest tectonic activity on Earth.
Geothermal energy systems have the potential to power the world and become the leading technology for reducing greenhouse gas emissions if we can drill down far enough into the Earth to access the conditions necessary for economic viability and release the heat beneath our feet. Quaise Inc. is developing a potentially disruptive drilling technology to make that happen. Matt Houde of Quaise presented the approach at the World Geothermal Congress on June 15.
The depths of the Black Sea store comparatively large amounts of organic carbon. A research team led by scientists from the University of Oldenburg, Germany, has now presented a new hypothesis as to why organic compounds accumulate in this semi-enclosed sea and other oxygen-depleted waters. Reactions with hydrogen sulfide play an important role in stabilizing carbon compounds, the researchers posit in the scientific journal Science Advances. This negative feedback in the climate system could counteract global warming over geological periods.
Superconductors have tremendous appeal in power transmission applications due to their zero resistance. However, to bring classical metallic superconductors into superconducting state requires liquid helium as a coolant, which is costly. Now, scientists from Japan take things to the new level by demonstrating high temperature superconductivity in mixed rare-earth barium copper oxides fabricated using a popular technique, opening doors to their low-cost, industrial scale production for real-world applications.
Using a numerical model that simulates ocean currents, researchers are shedding light on the important "motion of the ocean" in the Straits of Florida. They have conducted a first-of-its-kind study identifying the mechanisms behind the formation of sub-mesoscale eddies, which have important environmental implications and play a significant role in the health of the Florida Keys coral reef ecosystem.
MIT physicists have brought a human-scale object to a near-standstill, close to a quantum state.
Marine-terminating glaciers may be less vulnerable to rapid and irreversible collapse than previously suggested, according to a new study, which finds that ice cliff collapse is limited by upstream thinning of the ice sheet and how quickly calved icebergs and sea-ice float away.
Thirty state of the art IPCC-climate models predict dramatically different climates for the Northern Hemisphere, especially Europe. An analysis of the range of responses now reveals that the differences are mostly down to the individual model's simulations of changes to the North Atlantic ocean currents and not only -- as normally assumed -- atmospheric changes.
For the first time, researchers have used precariously-balanced rocks to set the formal design earthquake motions for a major existing engineered structure--the Clyde Dam, the largest concrete dam in New Zealand.