Radio-resistance in bacteria first evolves through the adaptation of DNA repair mechanisms, however as evolution continues more mutations accumulate, and more cellular metabolic processes are affected. It is not yet clear which panel of mutations provides high-level resistance. The study shows that acquisition of radio-resistance via evolution is possible independent of other mechanisms like extreme dryness resistance (desiccation).
Analysis published in Scientific Reports is based on climate models for the mid-Pliocene period, which occurred 3 million years ago and shared characteristics with present-day warming.
A discovery of more than a thousand dinosaur teeth, by a team of researchers from the University of Portsmouth, proves beyond reasonable doubt that Spinosaurus, the giant predator made famous by the movie Jurassic Park III as well as the BBC documentary Planet Dinosaur was an enormous river-monster.
Populations of China, Korea, and Japan first adopted rice as their main source of nutrition more than 10,000 years ago. As a result, they have developed genomic adaptations that are protecting them from the risks entailed by the westernization of their diets.
How can we explain the fact that no single species predominates? A generally accepted hypothesis is that a trade-off exists between organisms able to acquire and consume more food than other when resources are scarce, and organisms which rapidly consume large quantities of food when they are in abundance. However, when scientists from the University of Geneva and the Technical University of Denmark analysed over 500 species, biodiversity cannot be explained with such a trade-off.
Confuciusornis was a crow-like fossil bird that lived in the Cretaceous ~120 million years ago. It was one of the first birds to evolve a beak (Fig. 1). Early beak evolution remains understudied. Using an imaging technique called Laser-Stimulated Fluorescence, researchers at the University of Hong Kong (HKU) address this by revealing just how different the beak and jaw of Confuciusornis were compared to birds we see today.
Some of the genetic differences that have arisen between domesticated chickens and their wild ancestors, the red junglefowl, are linked to epigenetic changes, according to a new study published in Nature Ecology & Evolution. Scientists at Linköping University, Sweden, have discovered a small number of "hotspots" in the DNA that control epigenetic changes at hundreds of other locations throughout the genome.
Scientists from the University of Bristol and the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) used three-dimensional computer modelling to investigate the hindlimb of Euparkeria capensis-a small reptile that lived in the Triassic Period 245 million years ago-and inferred that it had a "mosaic" of functions in locomotion.
Researchers find evidence that asteroid Ryugu was born out of the possible destruction of a larger parent asteroid millions of years ago. Thanks to the Hayabusa2 spacecraft, the international team was able to study certain surface features in detail. Variations in the kinds of boulders scattered on Ryugu tell researchers about the processes involved in its creation. The study of asteroids including Ryugu informs the study of the evolution of life on Earth.
Many humans live to see their 80s, some even reach 100. But chimpanzees rarely make it past 50, despite sharing 99% of our genetic code. While modern medicine has added years to human lifespans, a study points to a more ancient explanation why humans are the long-lived primate. Part of the secret to human longevity may lie in chemical changes to our DNA that slowed the rate of aging after human ancestors diverged from chimps.