Global optimization problems where evaluation of the objective function is an expensive operation arise frequently in engineering, machine learning, decision making, statistics, optimal control, etc.
ETH Zurich researchers have developed multifunctional origami structures, which they then fabricated into 4-D printed objects. The design principle mimics the structure of an earwig's wing.
A University of Vermont mathematician has developed a new tool to identify gerrymandered voting districts. The research shows Pennsylvania, Ohio and North Carolina strongly gerrymandered for Republicans, while Maryland's and California's voting districts have been strongly tipped in favor of Democrats. The new tool could be important in the wake of two Supreme Court cases now being considered that might outlaw certain partisan gerrymanders.
In a study that holds promise for self-driving cars, MIT researchers have developed a system that can image and gauge the distance of objects shrouded by fog so thick that human vision can't penetrate it.
Scientists in Vienna have studied the complex interplay between flooding events and economic decisions. Private businesses should not shoulder the responsibility for flood protection alone. In prosperous countries in particular, it makes sense for central government to establish the necessary infrastructure for flood protection.
As early detection and treatment of breast cancer improves, more and more women are surviving the disease. However, they still face challenges, which include determining the moment when it might be reasonable to state they are 'cured' of the disease, and obtaining life insurance. At the European Breast Cancer Conference Dutch researchers describe how they have created a model to help life insurers calculate breast cancer survivors' risk of death more accurately
Weather patterns, brain activity and heartbeats each generate lines of complex data. To analyze this data, researchers must first divide up this continuous data into discrete pieces -- a task difficult to perform simply and accurately. Researchers have devised a method to transform data from complex systems, reducing the amount of important information lost, while still using less computing power than existing methods. They describe this new method in the current issue of Chaos.
About 70,000 years ago, when the human species was already on Earth, a small reddish star approached our solar system and gravitationally disturbed comets and asteroids. Astronomers from the Complutense University of Madrid and the University of Cambridge have verified that the movement of some of these objects is still marked by that stellar encounter.
Pressing a button appears easy, but the brain needs a probabilistic internal model to control a press. A new theory exposes significant improvements to button design that help gamers and musicians.
Scientists at the John Innes Centre have come up with a novel way of quantifying cell shapes -- with a lot of mathematics and a little musical inspiration.