Over 100 million women are on hormonal contraceptives. All of them contain some form of progesterone, either alone or in combination with estrogen. A study published on Sept. 15th in PLOS Pathogens reports that treatment with progesterone protects female mice against the consequences of influenza infection by reducing inflammation and improving pulmonary function, primarily through upregulation of amphiregulin in lung cells.
Mosquitoes are more likely to feed on cattle than on humans if they carry a specific chromosomal rearrangement in their genome. This reduces their odds of transmitting the malaria parasite, according to a University of California, Davis, study published Sept. 15 in the journal PLOS Genetics.
A multi-institutional academic and industry research team led by investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital and the Harvard Stem Cell Institute has identified a promising new approach to the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia
Stem cell-based transplantation approaches hold great potential for treating a wide range of eye diseases, but progress has been limited by concerns about cost, safety, and effectiveness. In two related studies, published Sept. 15 in Stem Cell Reports, scientists in Japan overcame a part of these concerns by demonstrating the successful transplantation of stem cell-derived retinal cells generated from immunologically matched donor animals without the need for harmful immunosuppressants.
A new, computer-based screening method could reveal the virus-fighting potential of drugs originally developed to treat other conditions, reports a study in PLOS Computational Biology.
Mosquito saliva influences transmission of viruses to a bitten mammalian host. For example, it contains factors that dampen the host immune response and so facilitate infection. A study published in PLOS NTDs reports on a saliva protein with the opposite effect: D7, a protein present in Aedes aegypti saliva, binds to Dengue virus (DENV) and inhibits its transmission to human cells and mice. Antibodies against D7, which are present in humans exposed to mosquito bites, might therefore facilitate virus transmission and enhance disease severity.
Although targeted drugs like Gleevec have revolutionized the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, patients generally must take them for the rest of their lives and may cease benefiting from them over time. In new research that could suggest a road to cure, scientists have found that CML stem cells die in response to inhibition of a protein called Ezh2. Drugs that target the protein are currently being tested in clinical trials for other cancers.
Stable isotope analysis of hair from bonobos shows that the diet of these great apes may vary with social rank and reproductive status, according a study published Sept. 14, 2016 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Vicky Oelze from Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Germany, and colleagues.
Household dust exposes people to a wide range of toxic chemicals from everyday products, according to a study led by researchers at Milken Institute School of Public Health (Milken Institute SPH) at the George Washington University. The multi-institutional team conducted a first-of-a-kind meta-analysis, compiling data from dust samples collected from homes throughout the United States to identify the top 10 toxic chemicals found in dust.
Among patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement, younger age, male sex, history of diabetes mellitus, and moderate to severe residual aortic regurgitation were significantly associated with an increased risk of infective endocarditis, and patients who developed endocarditis had high rates of in-hospital mortality and 2-year mortality, according to a study appearing in the Sept. 13 issue of JAMA.