Researchers at IIS, University of Tokyo simulated supercooled liquids subjected to Couette shear flow. The rapid drop in viscosity under shear was related to the liquids' two-body structural entropy. The study showed that the structural anisotropy along the extensional direction of the shear flow, measured using the two-body entropy, could fully describe sheared dynamics and shear thinning. These results may uncover the mechanism behind an old problem at the heart of fluid physics, shear thinning.
In the embryonic kidney, three types of precursor cells interact with each other to form a three-dimensional structure. Previous studies successfully induced nephron structures via nephron progenitors from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) but have not yet reproduced the well-organized structures of the kidney. Now, a Japanese research group has developed a method to induce another important progenitor from PSCs and assembled them together thereby succeeding in reproducing higher-order kidney structures.
A team of researchers has isolated the characteristics of bots on Twitter through an examination of bot activity related to Russian political discussions.
Engineers from Dartmouth's Thayer School of Engineering have produced a new imaging technology that may revolutionize medical and life sciences research, security, photography, cinematography and other applications that rely on high-quality, low-light imaging. Called the Quanta Image Sensor, or QIS, this next generation of light sensing technology is documented in the upcoming issue of Optica, the journal of The Optical Society.
Libratus, an artificial intelligence that defeated four top professional poker players in no-limit Texas Hold'em, uses a three-pronged approach to master a game with more decision points than atoms in the universe, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University report. In a paper published online today by the journal Science, they explain how their AI broke the game into computationally manageable parts and fixed potential weaknesses in its strategy during the competition.
Scientists at the US Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have discovered a new process to sheathe metal under a single layer of graphite which may lead to new and better-controlled properties for these types of materials.
Engineers have shown that a widely used method of detecting single photons can also count the presence of at least four photons at a time. The researchers say this discovery will unlock new capabilities in physics labs working in quantum information science around the world, while providing easier paths to developing quantum-based technologies.
UTA and University of Vermont researchers developed an optical medium in which multiple beams of light can autocorrect their properties without affecting other beams. This could lead to a dramatic reduction in the cost and energy consumption of high-speed internet communications.
Microscopes enhanced with artificial intelligence (AI) could help clinical microbiologists diagnose potentially deadly blood infections and improve patients' odds of survival, according to microbiologists at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC).
Researchers from Columbia University Medical Center tested a method to reduce the adverse effects of evening ambient light exposure, while still allowing use of blue light-emitting devices.