Public Release: 18-Jan-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Scientists take steps to make weak TB drugs strong again
Biophysicists have discovered why the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB) are naturally somewhat resistant to antibiotics known as fluoroquinolones. Their findings, based on mapping the detailed three-dimensional structure of the drugs interacting with an essential enzyme in the TB germ, also reveal why some TB drugs are more potent than others and suggest how drug developers can make fluoroquinolones more efficacious against mutations that make the lung disease drug resistant.
European Molecular Biology Organization, US Department of Veterans Affairs, NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH/National Cancer Institute, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and others
Public Release: 17-Jan-2016 Dissertations Increased childbirth at Indian health facilities led to no matching reduction in maternal death
To reduce maternal and neo-natal deaths, India launched a cash transfer program in 2005 that provides monetary incentives for women to give birth in health facilities instead of at home. While the program successfully increased the use of health facilities for child birth, it did not reduce maternal deaths as much, especially in poor areas. This is according to a doctoral dissertation published at Umeå University.
Public Release: 15-Jan-2016
Cell UGA researchers discover how trypanosome parasites communicate with each other
While scientists have known for years that African trypanosomes cause sleeping sickness, they've been left scratching their heads as to how these tiny single-celled organisms communicate. A University of Georgia study, published Jan. 14 in the journal Cell, helps solve this mystery.
The UGA researchers discovered that long filaments--that look like beads on a string -- form by budding from the flagellum of African trypanosomes and then release pieces of the parasite into the host.
National Institutes of Health
Public Release: 14-Jan-2016 Dengue vaccine enters phase 3 trial in Brazil
A large-scale clinical trial to evaluate whether a candidate vaccine can prevent the mosquito-borne illness dengue fever has been launched in Brazil. The vaccine, TV003, was developed by scientists in the laboratory of Stephen Whitehead, Ph.D., at NIAID. The Butantan Institute, a non-profit producer of immunobiologic products for Brazil, licensed the NIAID dengue vaccine technology and is sponsoring the placebo-controlled, multi-center Phase 3 trial using test vaccine produced in Sao Paulo.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Public Release: 14-Jan-2016
The Lancet Zika virus has potential to spread rapidly through Americas
The Zika virus, possibly linked to serious birth defects in Brazil, has the potential to spread within the Americas, including parts of the US, according to an international team of researchers who track the spread of infectious diseases.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Wellcome Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, RAPIDD/Science & Technology Directorate, US Department of Homeland Security, NIH/Fogarty International Center
Public Release: 13-Jan-2016 Trauma team members face risk of 'compassion fatigue' and burnout
Trauma team members are at risk of compassion fatigue and burnout syndrome, as supported by the new research by Gina M. Berg, Ph.D., M.B.A., of University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita and colleagues. Authors identify some 'stress triggers' contributing to these risks, and make recommendations to help trauma teams cope with secondary traumatic stress, reports a study in the January issue of Journal of Trauma Nursing. The journal is published by Wolters Kluwer.
Public Release: 13-Jan-2016
Nature Communications Protein patterns -- a new tool for studying sepsis
Researchers from Lund University and the University of Zurich have developed a way to use mass spectrometry to measure hundreds of proteins in a single blood sample. With the help of protein patterns it is then possible to determine the severity of a patient's sepsis (blood poisoning) condition and which organs have been damaged. The method is presented in an article in Nature Communications.
Public Release: 13-Jan-2016
New England Journal of Medicine Mosquito net safe to use in inguinal hernia repair
Sterilized mosquito nets can replace costly surgical meshes in the repair of inguinal (groin) hernias without further risk to the patients, according to a new Swedish-Ugandan study. This makes mosquito nets a good alternative for close to 200 million people in low-income countries suffering from untreated groin hernias.
Swedish Society of Medicine, Swedish Research Council, Swedish Rotary, Church of Sweden, Capio Research Foundation, and others
Public Release: 13-Jan-2016
BioScience New insights into animal-borne disease outbreaks
To better understand the dynamics of zoonotic diseases, researchers have examined the epidemiology of plague among black-tailed prairie dogs. Their work points to biases that may threaten efforts to better characterize the vectors and transmission of diseases such as Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and others.
Short Grass Steppe Long Term Ecological Research Grants, Ecology of Infectious Diseases Programs
Public Release: 12-Jan-2016
Heliyon Experts call for more tailored liver cancer care in developing countries
International liver cancer guidelines could be preventing patients from getting life-saving treatments in developing countries, according to a new study published in the journal Heliyon. The authors of the research are calling for treatment guidelines that are more tailored to developing countries, to help save lives.
Public Release: 11-Jan-2016
The Lancet The Institut Pasteur in French Guiana publishes the first complete genome sequence of the Zika virus
Having confirmed the first cases of infection in Suriname then in French Guiana, the Institut Pasteur in French Guiana has sequenced the complete genome of the Zika virus, which is responsible for an unprecedented epidemic currently sweeping through the tropical regions of the Americas. Published in The Lancet medical journal, the analysis of this sequence shows almost complete homology with the strains responsible for the epidemic that occurred in the Pacific in 2013 and 2014.
Public Release: 8-Jan-2016 Dr. W. Ian Lipkin receives China's top science honor
W. Ian Lipkin, MD, director of the Center for Infection and Immunity at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, received China's top science honor for foreign scientists, the International Science and Technology Cooperation Award at a ceremony on Jan. 8, 2016 presided by China President Xi Jinping. The award recognizes Dr. Lipkin's outstanding contributions to scientific and technological innovation and for promoting scientific advancement in China.
Public Release: 8-Jan-2016
The Journal of Pediatrics Ebola medical team develops guidelines for treating infected children
When the Ebola virus outbreak erupted in West Africa in 2014, children infected with the virus -- particularly those under age 5 -- faced a high risk of death. Researchers involved in their treatment have since developed a set of guidelines aimed at improving how they're treated. They suggest an aggressive approach that includes giving children fluids intravenously; treating other possible infections; feeding them highly fortified food; and increasing the amount of bedside care they receive.
Public Release: 7-Jan-2016 UC San Diego Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Janssen R&D collaborate to treat Chagas disease
Researchers at the Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of California, San Diego have entered into a research collaboration with Janssen Research & Development, LLC (Janssen R&D), one of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, to identify new therapeutic targets for Chagas disease, a parasitic infection that is the leading cause of heart failure in Latin America.
Public Release: 7-Jan-2016 New research grant awarded to help cut heart disease in South Asia
A new international collaboration has received a £2 million award to fund research into combatting the rising numbers of deaths in rural South Asia caused by cardiovascular disease.
UK Department for International Development, Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust
Public Release: 7-Jan-2016
The Lancet Infectious Diseases Current malaria treatment fails in Cambodia due to drug-resistant parasites
New findings from NIAID confirm dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, the first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection in Cambodia, has failed in certain provinces due to parasite resistance to artemisinin and piperaquine. Additional study findings suggest that artesunate, a form of artemisinin, plus mefloquine, a different long-acting partner drug, should be the first-line ACT in areas where dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine treatment has failed, the study authors note.
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Public Release: 6-Jan-2016 TTUHSC researcher receives NIH grant for vaccine
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center researcher Afzal A. Siddiqui, Ph.D., a Grover E. Murray Distinguished Professor at the TTUHSC School of Medicine, received a $3.82 million grant from the National Institutes of Health. The three-year NIAID/SBIR-R44 Phase II Grant is to prepare the Schistosomiasis Vaccine (SchistoShield®) for human clinical trials. This phase of the research funding is in collaboration with Darrick Carter, president and CEO of PAI Life Science in Seattle, WA.
National Institutes of Health
Public Release: 6-Jan-2016 Walter Reed Army Institute of Research begins phase 2 clinical trial of Ebola vaccine
The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) today began a Phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a prime-boost Ebola vaccine regimen in both healthy and HIV-infected study volunteers.
Joint Vaccines Acquisition Program at the Department of Defense's Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical and Biological Defense
Public Release: 5-Jan-2016
Academic Medicine Do no harm: Examining the impact of medical students' short-term international study
International study experiences are a valuable and increasingly expected part of medical students' academic experience, but authors of a new article in Academic Medicine say not all programs leave patients and communities better off. They have recommendations for choosing effective programs and also for shifting the focus to ensure the programs are beneficial for all.
Public Release: 5-Jan-2016
Journal of Virology Study shows high frequency of spontaneous mutation in Ebola virus
In a Journal of Virology paper, Texas Biomed Scientist Dr. Anthony Griffiths, explains how he and his team found that Ebola virus has the potential to evolve rapidly but the genetic changes result in viruses that are weakened or not viable, which could be exploited as a therapeutic.