14-Aug-2007 Using generalized particle distributions: Research collaboration seeks 3-D image of the proton
A computed tomography -- CT -- scan can help physicians pinpoint minute cancer tumors, diagnose tiny broken bones and spot the early signs of osteoporosis. Now physicists are using the principles behind the procedure to peer at the inner workings of the proton. In a recent experiment, members of Jefferson Lab's Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering collaboration found that it will be possible to construct three-dimensional images of the building blocks of the proton.
14-Aug-2007 Studying the universe through pions
Pions are some of matter's simplest particles. They're built from the same building blocks as protons and neutrons -- quarks. The pion is the simplest particle built of quarks. The quarks are "glued" together by the strong force -- a fundamental force of nature that also binds quarks to form protons and neutrons. Studying the simple pion and its properties can reveal information about matter in the universe, where it came from and how it's held together.
31-Jul-2007 Reaching new heights in accelerator technology
The International Linear Collider is designed to collide high-energy electrons with high-energy positrons (electrons' antimatter counterparts). Once built, the ILC will serve as a powerful tool for scientists to address many of the most compelling questions of the 21st century -- regarding the fundamental nature of matter, energy, space and time, dark matter, dark energy and extra dimensions.
31-Jul-2007 Exploring the universal glue
In Jefferson Lab's Hall C, an international collaboration of nuclear physicists, the Fpi collaboration, is studying how the strong force combines nature's fundamental building blocks into the lightest particle built of quarks: the pion.
19-Jul-2007 Researchers' hottest new laser beams 14.2kW
On Oct. 26, Free-Electron Laser (FEL) team members knew they were within reach of a goal they'd pursued for two years. They were aiming to produce 10 kW of laser light at an infrared wavelength of 1.61 microns. On that day, they blew past the milestone to produce 11.7 kW. Just four days later, on Oct. 30, they coaxed another two kW out of the machine setting the record even higher at 14.2 kW.
9-Jul-2007 Lab enhances scientific data sharing with cutting-edge connection
In early 2005, researchers affiliated with Hall B wanted to transfer raw data from a recent experiment from the tape silo to computers offsite -- a task that without interruption would have taken the Lab's existing network connection almost seven days. Jefferson Lab's newly upgraded network connection is able to transfer data at a rate of up to 10 Gigabits per second, so that same transfer can now be completed in just 2.5 hours.
5-Jul-2007 Big bite is reborn
At Jefferson Lab's recent Users Meeting, DOE's Dennis Kovar and NSF's Brad Keister emphasized the funding agencies' commitment to pursuing a cohesive nuclear physics research program in the United States. For instance, Jefferson Lab is funded by DOE; however, NSF provides for many of the Lab's Users and students and some of the instrumentation used in experiments, such as the recently upgraded BigBite spectrometer.
15-Jun-2007 Brain 3D mapping to combat neurodegenerative disease
Wanda felt a jolt of frustration run through
her when her husband forgot to meet her at
the clubhouse after their round of golf. How many times had this happened lately? It was becoming an embarrassment.
15-Jun-2007 Discovering the details of dissolution
Ions in a liquid are like celebrities at a movie opening -- surrounded by fans who jostle each other to get as close as the velvet ropes around the red carpet will allow. So it is
with ions in water or other liquids or solvents.
15-Jun-2007 Cytochrome studies provide biofuel cell potential
Researchers from Pacific Northwest
National Laboratory and collaborators have
purified the protein called outer membrane
cytochrome A (OmcA) from Shewanella
oneidensis, a bacterium with promise for
bioremediation of contaminants and the
design of microbial fuel cells. They have
measured its ability to bind and transfer
electrons to mineral hematite, a solid ferric
oxide. The team has shown that purified
OmcA can directly reduce solid metals
and that purified proteins are a next step
in biofuel cell development.
15-Jun-2007 Aerosol particles and cloud droplets -- Microscopic modulators of climate
Scientists around the world use
sophisticated computer models to
simulate future scenarios of all types -- including global climate. Researchers
at Pacific Northwest National
Laboratory are playing a key role in
the improvement of these models by
providing new information about the
role of aerosols in the atmosphere.
15-Jun-2007 Dust in the wind
In March 2006, a major dust storm
occurred in Niamey, Niger. Although a
common occurrence, this was the first
time both satellite- and ground-based
instruments were used simultaneously
to assess the impact of airborne Saharan
dust on incoming and outgoing solar
15-Jun-2007 Hopping hydrogen
Researchers at Pacific Northwest
National Laboratory and the University
of Texas at Austin discovered that a single
hydrogen atom just can't keep still after it
splits from a water molecule on the surface
of the catalyst rutile titanium oxide. The
hydrogen atom hopscotches across the
oxygen atoms that stud the surface of the
catalyst, while the hydrogen on what is left
from water remains fixed, suggesting that
the electronic structure of this popular
catalyst is not entirely as it seems.
15-Jun-2007 On thin icege/gi
Thin clouds high in the upper troposphere, like cirrus clouds, may have a significant influence on Earth's climate and enhance the "greenhouse effect" by absorbing more of
the sun's radiation than they take in. Unknown is how ice crystals in these clouds absorb and reflect radiant energy and enhance the amount of radiant energy emitted toward the earth's surface.
15-Jun-2007 Iron nanoparticles could lead to more effectives carbon tetrachloride cleanup
Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the University of Minnesota and Oregon Health and Science University discovered that not all iron nanoparticles
are created equal. Some, in fact, may be especially useful for cleaning up groundwater contaminated with carbon tetrachloride.Bi%3A1181862272
14-Jun-2007 Taming the hairy mushroom
Fungi (yeasts, molds and mushrooms) have gotten a bad rap over the years. They have been blamed for infecting food crops and represent some of the most universal and costly pathogens known to man -- both of
which overshadow the important contributions fungi make, such as providing critical agricultural nutrients and compounds for antibiotics.
The Department of Energy's Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.