Public Release: 3-Aug-2016
Analytical Chemistry Researchers at Sandia, Northeastern develop method to study critical HIV protein
Mike Kent, a researcher in Sandia National Laboratories' Biological and Engineering Sciences Center, is studying a protein called Nef involved in HIV progression to AIDS with the ultimate goal of blocking it. He and his collaborators have developed a new hybrid method to study this HIV protein that compromises the immune system. The method also could work on many other proteins that damage cellular processes and cause diseases.
National Institutes of Health
Public Release: 29-Jul-2016
Science Advances Researchers find molecular switch that triggers bacterial pathogenicity
A new study led by scientists at Berkeley Lab has revealed that the supercoiling of bacterial chromosomes around histone-like proteins can trigger the expression of genes that make the microbe invasive. The discovery could provide a new target for the development of drugs to prevent or treat bacterial infection.
National Institutes of Health, US Department of Energy
Public Release: 27-Jul-2016
Environmental Science & Technology All e-cigarettes emit harmful chemicals, but some emit more than others
While previous studies have found that electronic cigarettes emit toxic compounds, a new study from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has pinpointed the source of these emissions and shown how factors such as the temperature, type, and age of the device play a role in emission levels, information that could be valuable to both manufacturers and regulators seeking to minimize the health impacts of these increasingly popular devices.
Public Release: 19-Jul-2016
Nature Communications Scientists create new thin material that mimics cell membranes
Materials scientists have created a new material that performs like a cell membrane found in nature. Such a material has long been sought for applications as varied as water purification and drug delivery. The material can assemble itself into a sheet thinner but stabler than a soap bubble, the researchers report July 12 in Nature Communications.
Department of Energy
Public Release: 18-Jul-2016
Nature Chemical Biology Scientists determine structure of enzyme linked with key cell-signaling protein
Scientists have captured atomic level snapshots showing how one key enzyme modifies a protein involved in turning genes on or off inside cells. Understanding this process helps explain how complex organisms can arise from a finite number of genes. The research also identifies links between defects in this particular enzyme and certain cancers, potentially pointing to new drug targets.
National Institutes of Health, Stony Brook University-Brookhaven National Laboratory Seed Grant, DOE/Office of Science, and Eli Lilly Company
Public Release: 29-Jun-2016
Cell Ovarian cancer study provides painstaking look at inner workings of tumors
Scientists have examined the collections of proteins in the tumors of 169 ovarian cancer patients to identify critical proteins present in their tumors. The researchers say their achievement illustrates the power of combining genomic and proteomic data -- an approach known as proteogenomics -- to yield a more complete picture of the biology of a cancer that is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States.
NIH/National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health
Public Release: 16-Jun-2016
2016 Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Innovative device allows 3-D imaging of the breast with less radiation
Adding a new device to an existing breast molecular imaging system allows the system to get six times better contrast of cancer lesions in the breast, providing the same or better image quality while also potentially reducing the radiation dose to the patient by half. The device may also allow for 3-D molecular breast images at higher resolution than current 2-D scans in a format that may be used alongside 3-D digital mammography.
Commonwealth of Virginia's Center for Innovative Technology, Dilon Technologies
Public Release: 16-Jun-2016
Journal of Virology Sandia researchers discover mechanism for Rift Valley fever virus infection
Viruses can't live without us -- literally. As obligate parasites, viruses need a host cell to survive. Scientists are exploiting this characteristic by developing therapeutics that close off pathways necessary for viral infection, essentially stopping pathogens in their tracks.
Rift Valley fever virus and other bunyaviruses may soon be added to the list of viruses denied access to a human host. Sandia National Laboratories researchers have discovered a mechanism by which RVFV hijacks the host machinery to cause infection.
Public Release: 6-Jun-2016
Nature Chemical Biology Copper is key in burning fat
A new study led by a Berkeley Lab scientist and UC Berkeley professor establishes for the first time copper's role in fat metabolism, further burnishing the metal's reputation as an essential nutrient for human physiology.
National Institutes of Health
Public Release: 31-May-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences RNA simulations boost understanding of retroviral diseases
New molecular dynamics research into how RNA folds into hairpin-shaped structures called tetraloops could provide important insights into new treatments for retroviral diseases.
Public Release: 27-May-2016
Nature Microbiology PNNL helps lead national microbiome initiative
Scientists Janet Jansson and Ljiljana Paša-Toli are part of a core group of scientists leading a national effort to understand communities of microorganisms and their role in climate science, food production and human health.
Public Release: 25-May-2016 Radiation 101: DoseNet delivers environmental data as an educational tool
A network of radiation-monitoring devices and a companion website and open-source code serve as educational and outreach tools for an international project called DoseNet that stretches from Northern California classrooms to a city hall in Japan. Its broad aim is to inform and connect students and communities using science and data as common ground.
Public Release: 20-May-2016
Angewandte Chemie Neutrons probe structure of enzyme critical to development of next-generation HIV drugs
A team led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory used neutron analysis to better understand a protein implicated in the replication of HIV, the retrovirus that causes AIDS. The enzyme, known as HIV-1 protease, is a key drug target for HIV and AIDS therapies. The multi-institutional team used neutron crystallography to uncover detailed interactions of hydrogen bonds at the enzyme's active site, revealing a pH-induced proton 'hopping' mechanism that guides its activity.
DOE/Office of Science
Public Release: 19-May-2016
Journal of Orthopaedic Research New research could personalize medicine for arthritis patients
Recently, a team of scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Davis, University of California, Merced and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals examined the whole-joint gene expression by RNA sequencing at one day, one, six and 12 weeks after injury. The team used a new, non-invasive tibial compression mouse model of PTOA, that mimics ACL rupture in humans from a single high-impact injury.
Public Release: 21-Mar-2016
ACS Nano ORNL-NIST team explores nanoscale objects and processes with microwave microscopy
Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Institute of Standards and Technology have demonstrated a nondestructive way to observe nanoscale objects and processes in conditions simulating their normal operating environments. Their novel approach combines ultrathin membranes with microwaves and a scanning probe.
Department of Energy Office of Science, National Institute of Standards and Technology
Public Release: 21-Mar-2016
Analytical Chemistry Lighting up disease-carrying mosquitoes
Robert Meagher, a chemical engineer at Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a simple technique for simultaneously detecting RNA from West Nile and chikungunya virus in samples from mosquitoes. He is now working to add the ability to screen for Zika virus.
Public Release: 25-Feb-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Analyzing genetic tree sheds new light on disease outbreaks
Scientists have a new tool for unraveling the mysteries of how diseases such as HIV move through a population, thanks to insights into phylogenetics, the creation of an organism's genetic tree and evolutionary relationships.
The Department of Energy's Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time.