Illustration microbiome (IMAGE) University of Vienna Caption Seki et al. have established a comprehensive, time-resolved profile of microbiota, immune, and neurophysiological development in premature infants. Their research linked early-life microbiome establishment to immunological and neurological development, identifying candidate biomarkers of perinatal brain injury. In summary (left), their results showed that pro-inflammatory T cell response correlates with suppressed electro-cortical maturation. γδ T cells seemed to have central implications for this suppression and the pathogenesis of brain injury. Furthermore, Klebsiella overgrowth in the gastrointestinal tract was highly predictive for brain damage. To the right, manifestations of such brain injuries are shown as representative cranial magnetic resonance (cMRI) images at term-equivalent age for intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH; upper right corner) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, lower right corner). Credit © Seki et al., 2021 Usage Restrictions Credit must be given to the creator. License CC BY Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.