Ant social parasitism (IMAGE) Arizona State University Caption Diversity of life history traits in the formicine ants. In clockwise direction: (A) members of the F. fusca group practicing independent colony foundation; (B) F. obscuripes, representing the Formica integra group (Nearctic members of the paraphyletic “rufa” group), which practices dependent and temporary social parasitic colony founding; (C) Formica gynocrates, representing the facultatively dulotic species of the F. sanguinea group, with a worker of its neogagates group host species, Formica vinculans; (D) the highly modified worker of Polyergus mexicanus, representing the obligately dulotic formicine ants in the genera Polyergus and Rossomyrmex. Credit All images courtesy of Alex Wild (www.alexanderwild.com). Usage Restrictions None License Original content Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.