Image (IMAGE) University of Tsukuba Caption Researchers led by the University of Tsukuba carried out simulations of large-scale structure formation in the Universe that accurately reproduce the dynamics of ghost-like particles called neutrinos left over from the Big Bang. In the demonstrated approach, an equation known as the Vlasov equation is directly solved in six dimensions, which avoids key problems associated with conventional particle-based N-body simulations. In combination with cosmological observations, this work could help to determine the unknown neutrino mass. Credit University of Tsukuba Usage Restrictions Unauthorized use is prohibited. License Original content Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.