Four Waves of Overdose Mortality (IMAGE) Society for the Study of Addiction Caption A simplified schema of the four waves of the US overdose mortality crisis. Waves 1 and 2 include deaths involving commonly prescribed opioids, and heroin, respectively, but excluding fentanyl co-involved deaths. Wave 3 and Wave 4 show fentanyl deaths not involving, and involving, stimulants respectively as distinct trends. Data from CDC WONDER. Credit Friedman and Shover, 2023, doi: 10.1111/add.16318. Usage Restrictions Credit required. License Original content Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.