The pump beside a swedish coin, 10 Skr.
The short distance that the ions need to be transported means that they can be delivered more rapidly than previously possible. Each outlet has been provided with a control electrode made from a conducting polymer, which means that they can be individually controlled. The control electrode together with another material forms an ion diode, which prevents leakage. (A diode conducts only in one direction.)
The conducting polymer in the control electrode becomes charged with ions when the pump is switched off. The ions can be rapidly released when an electrical signal is received, in the same way that an action potential causes neurotransmitter to be released in a synapse. The operation can be repeated many times.