Vertical graphene flakes form a protective surface that makes it impossible for bacteria to attach. Instead, bacteria are sliced apart by the sharp graphene flakes and killed. Human cells volume is typically 15,000 times larger. So, what constitutes a deadly knife attack for a bacterium, is therefore only a tiny scratch for a human cell. Coating implants with a layer of graphene flakes can therefore help protect the patient against infection, eliminate the need for antibiotic treatment, and reduce the risk of implant rejection. The osseointegration - the process by which the bone structure grows to attach the implant -- is not disturbed. In fact, the graphene has been shown to benefit the bone cells.