IBS scientists tested droplet formation in vitro with different types and sequences of DNA in the presence of poly-L-lysine and salts. They discovered that the easiness of liquid-like droplets formation is related to the DNA flexibility and sequence: the more flexible the DNA is, the easier droplets form. For example, a single-strand DNA sequence made of only T's is more flexible than A's. Double-stranded DNA is more rigid than single-stranded DNA, and high concentrations of salts are needed. In addition, the team discovered that adding ATP facilitates the process of droplet formation with double-stranded DNA. (Modified from freepik.com).