DC voltage dependence of the anisotropy of the magnetic pole of the free layer. The filled and open squares represent the voltage sweep direction. The red line is the fitting of the data. The yellow and blue dashed lines represent the linear and quadratic components of the fitting, respectively. The former is the conventional voltage-induced linear magnetic anisotropy change, and the latter is the Joule heating-induced magnetic anisotropy change.
Osaka University, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, and Grenoble Alpes University