A cross-institutional research collaboration led by Professor OHTSUBO Yohsuke of Kobe University's Graduate School of Humanities has been investigating how group apologies are perceived. Their results revealed that costly apologies are deemed to be more genuine. This was similar to previous findings by Professor Ohtsubo et al. when they looked into apologies from individuals, such as friends or colleagues. It is hoped that the understanding illuminated by this research will help groups make more effective apologies, particularly in crisis communication and international peacemaking.