a, The entire transition from the narrow-spectrum regime to the wide-spectrum regime, showing complex dynamics. b, The relaxation oscillation (RO) state induced by the polarization assignment of the EPC. c, The multi-soliton state with three solitons in a single roundtrip and the noisy wide-spectrum transition at the 15201th roundtrip, where a noisy pulse appears on the right, adding noise to the short-wavelength range of the real-time spectrum. d, The dynamics from the triangular-spectrum transition to the chaotic transition where an abrupt change in the soliton position, a vanishing soliton, and a soliton position shift appear. Comparing one stripe from the triangular-spectrum regime and one stripe that resembles a mixture of the triangular-spectrum transition and the Q-switched mode-locking (QML) oscillations from the chaotic transition, the latter stripe has a lower modulation depth and comprises wider and noisy pulses, blurring the sparkles. e, QML oscillations weaken during the conversion to the noisy wide-spectrum transition due to power reallocation.
by Guoqing Pu, Lilin Yi, Li Zhang, Chao Luo, Zhaohui Li and Weisheng Hu