Researchers are using satellite and aircraft observations to monitor regional land carbon fluxes in near real-time, as illustrated in this artist's concept. Satellite observations of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) were used to track photosynthesis and estimate corresponding changes in land surface carbon fluxes. Meanwhile, atmospheric CO2 concentrations, which are influenced by the land surface carbon fluxes, can be observed by aircraft and from space. In this illustration, the two satellites depicted from left to right are: TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) and OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2). The aircraft is the ACT-America (Atmospheric Carbon and Transport - America).