This is an image, made using an optical microscope, of the sample taken from "Bank of the Seine" studied with synchrotron X-rays. The brown layer on top of the paint is varnish, it appears opaque but in reality it lets light through. The brown pigments are invisible to the optical microscope. They are located at the interface between varnish and paint, in a layer less than three micrometers thick. The scale bar at the bottom indicates the size of the sample.