An authoritative, evidence-based assessment of the state of science and technology in Canada has found that Canadian science and technology is healthy, growing and internationally respected. Over the past five years, real improvements have occurred in the magnitude and quality of Canadian science and technology. This assessment was conducted by an 18-member panel of distinguished and multidisciplinary experts from Canada and abroad. The Panel has developed a comprehensive assessment of the state of Science and Technology (S&T) in Canada, with a focus on research performed in the higher education sector, as well as in the not-for-profit and government sectors. The Panel's report provides an authoritative assessment of Canada's overall S&T strengths, as compared with international peers. It also addresses improvements and/or declines in research fields, highlights emerging areas of S&T, and provides insights on provincial areas of strength and specialization. The collective findings are comprehensive and represent one of the most in-depth examinations of Canadian S&T ever undertaken.