This graph shows the cranial capacities in cubic centimeters for 118 fossil hominids plotted against time, extending back almost 3.5 million years. The arrow indicates the highly incongruous value reported in Nature by Brown et al. in 2004 for Homo floresiensis, described as an insular dwarf derived from Homo erectus. The relatively tiny brain size only 18,000 years ago does not fit into known patterns of hominid brain size and development. It is "off the chart."