The increase in the extent of tissue ablation achieved by combining reversible electroporation pulses withelectrolysis is shown with Masson's trichromatic staining of the liver tissue. Plate electrodes were placed on the top and bottom surfaces of the rat liver lobe in vivo. An electrolytic protocol consisting of 4 mA of current applied over a 30s time interval produced tissue ablation around the top and bottom surfaces of the tissue that were in contact with the electrodes, as shown in panel (a). A reversible electroporation protocol (applying an electric field of 250 V/cm over 8 pulses of 100 μs in length at a 1 Hz frequency) also resulted in tissue ablation concentrated near the top and bottom surfaces of the tissue (b). Combining electrolysis with reversible electroporation, however, resulted in a much greater region of tissue ablation. The treatment zone is seen to penetrate through the entire liver thickness, as outlined in panels (c) and (d). In panel (c), the electrolysis protocol was delivered first, followed by the reversible electroporation protocol, and in panel (d), the reversible electroporation protocol was applied before electrolysis. Dashed lines are used to highlight the treated area.