The Cost of Fire Suppression: NASA Modis image (July 2, 2008) of multiple lightning ignitions in Northern California burning at low to moderate severity under mild weather conditions providing ecological benefits. Purple shaded areas are wilderness, roadless and National Park (remote) boundaries with few structures or immediate human threats. Fire locations are indicated by red or blue shading, with blue showing fires burning with-in these remote areas (51 percent of all ignitions). Regardless of location or threat, all fires were extinguished at a cost of $101 million (2015) and 11 firefighter fatalities. This material relates to a paper that appeared in the Sept. 18, 2015 issue of Science, published by AAAS. The paper, by M.P. North at USDA Forest Service - Pacific Southwest Research Station in Davis, CA, and colleagues was titled, 'Reform forest fire management.'
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