The diversity of corneal nanostructural patterns among arthropod groups: (AandB) Corneal nanostructures of Trichoptera. Merged as well as undersized nipples in an irregular nipple array of the Phryganeidaefamily (A) and maze-like nanocoating of the Limnephilidae family (B). (C) Clearly expressed parallel strands in a true spider. (D) Dimpled nanopattern of an earwig (Dermaptera). (E) Nipples merging into maze on stonefly (Plecoptera) corneae. (FandG) Merging of individual Dipteran nipples into parallel strands and mazes: full merging of nipples into strands and mazes on the entire corneal surface in Tabanidae (F); partial merging of nipples in the center of Tipulidae cornea into elongated protrusions and then complete fusion into an array of parallel strands near the ommatidial edge (G). (H) Merging of individual burrows and dimples into a maze-like structure on bumblebee (Apidae, Hymenoptera) corneae. All image dimensions are 5×5μm, except forH, which is 3×3μm. Surface height in nanometers is indicated by the color scale shown next to 2-D images.