A team of scientists at Colorado State University has received an award of nearly $50,000 from the National Science Foundation to study snowpack, streams and sediment in waterways in the areas affected by the largest wildfire in Colorado history.
Stephanie Kampf, principal investigator and a professor in the Department of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability, said the team came up with the study concept as they watched the Cameron Peak Fire begin to burn northwest of Fort Collins in August 2020.
The fire was at 92% containment as of Nov. 18.
"Given that the fire was burning in our local watershed, everyone is curious about what would happen with our waterways," she said. "The Cameron Peak Fire has been unique, since it started at and burned a large area at high elevation."
Kampf said the fire soon consumed the largest area burned in a high-elevation persistent snow zone in the Western United States since 1984.
"As researchers started looking for examples of other high-elevation fire studies, we realized that not much research has been conducted," she said.
CSU Assistant Professor Sean Gallen and Professor Sara Rathburn, Department of Geosciences, and Assistant Professor Ryan Morrison, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, are co-investigators on this project. Kampf said that scientists from the United States Geological Survey will also collaborate on the research.
Historic wildfire provides unique research opportunity
Morrison, who will study how stream channels and floodplains in the Cache la Poudre River basin are impacted by changes in sediment transport and flow after the fire, agreed that the Cameron Peak Fire had unique aspects to study.
"The Cameron Peak Fire in northern Colorado has burned nearly 20% of the upper Cache la Poudre River basin, which supplies water to meet municipal and agricultural needs in the region," he said. "The fire has also expanded to lower elevations, burning both transitional and intermittent snow zones."
Morrison said water providers, including cities in northern Colorado, are concerned about the impacts of erosion on streams and reservoirs. Snowpack is crucial for the water supply in Colorado.
"This project will collect critical data for the first snow accumulation and melt season after the fire to address how the fire affects snow processes, flow paths and sediment movement," he said.
Kampf said previous research on the impacts of wildfires on snowpack have been quite variable.
"When there's a fire, we can see increased snow accumulation, due to fewer trees intercepting the snow," she said. "But this doesn't always happen. Sometimes greater exposure of the snow to the sun leads to lower snowpack after fire."
And while snow melt doesn't usually create high elevation snow hazards, Kampf said it's possible that having greater snowpack in the burn area may cause other hazards like debris flows.
The research team only recently received approval to go into the burn area and begin field work. They hope to complete as much research as possible before there's a lot more snow on the ground.
Additional researchers on this project at CSU include Paul Evangelista and Tony Vorster (Natural Resource Ecology Lab), Dan McGrath and Ellen Wohl (Department of Geosciences), Peter Nelson (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering), Steven Fassnacht (Department of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability), and Kristen Rasmussen (Department of Atmospheric Science).