Free bus travel has improved the social lives and independence of 12-18 year olds in London, according to research published today in the journal Mobilities.
Researchers from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and UCL (University College London) found that free bus travel – which all young Londoners are entitled to by registering for a Zip Oyster Card – increased young people's ability to travel independently and extended their opportunities through facilitating extra trips, trips further afield and/or exploratory trips with friends.
Travelling together was reported to be a key feature for young people. Researchers discovered that a 'code of honour' for bus travel has developed: travelling as a group is seen as a sign of loyalty and getting on a bus without friends or leaving them on the bus alone seen as a betrayal. While many adult travellers use a range of strategies to avoid others in shared space, young Londoners are embracing free bus travel as a site of sociability.
First author Dr Anna Goodman, Research Fellow at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, said: "Free bus travel has improved independent mobility by giving young people the freedom to get about without always having to ask their parents for money. This made a particular difference for social or recreational trips, which even more affluent parents might not always be willing to pay for. But to the young people these trips were important, a way to gain travel skills, spend time with friends, and come to feel more 'like a Londoner'.
"One key factor in realising these benefits was the fact that free travel is universally available, rather than means tested. Not only did this ensure free travel was not stigmatised, but it also meant groups of friends could travel together without anyone being left out. As such, free travel increased the independent mobility for whole groups of young people, not just for individuals"
The study, funded by the National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research (NIHR PHR) Programme, also found that free bus travel improved confidence because young people could take 'practice' journeys and could feel secure that they would not be stranded far from home without money to get back.
More than 100 young Londoners were interviewed in depth to examine how free bus travel has affected young people's independent mobility. The benefits for young people echo benefits of free bus travel for older people which have also recently been described by the same research group. Published in Ageing & Society in late 2012, this second piece of research found that free bus passes for over 60s provided older Londoners with a sense of belonging and visibility in society, improving wellbeing and tackling chronic loneliness.
Professor Judith Green from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and principal investigator of both pieces of research, said: "When funding is tight, free bus travel looks like an easy target for cuts. But we found many important benefits for the wellbeing of young people and older citizens that wouldn't have happened if free transport was means tested. Getting people out of cars, and out and about in public is good for their health, and good for the health of our cities. These schemes appear to do that for two age groups at real risk of social exclusion" Ends
Anna Goodman, Alasdair Jones, Helen Roberts, Rebecca Steinbach, Judith Green. "'We can all just get on a bus and go': rethinking independent mobility in the context of the universal provision of free bus travel to young Londoners". Mobilities. DOI: 10.1080/17450101.2013.782848
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Notes to editors:
Free bus travel was introduced in 2005 for under-17 year olds by Transport for London, and has since been extended to include 17-18 year olds in full-time education. Young people access the free travel by applying for a photo-ID 'Zip card'. This simultaneously functions as a conventional 'Oyster card', the ticket-free electronic card system which all users of London's public transport can pre-load with money for travel.
The research on young people was based on qualitative, in-depth interviews with 118 young Londoners, aged 12-18, from a range of inner and outer London boroughs.
The research on older people was based on qualitative, in-depth interviews with 47 Londoners aged 60 or over, from a range of inner and outer London boroughs. It was published as: Judith Green, Alasdair Jones and Helen Roberts "More than A to B: the role of free bus travel for the mobility and wellbeing of older citizens in London". Ageing and Society, DOI: 10.1017/S0144686X12001110
Both research publications form part of the On The Buses study, which has combined quantitative and qualitative data collection to examine the health impacts of free bus travel in London. For more details, visit http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/php/hsrp/buses/index.html
The On The Buses study was funded from 2010-2012 by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Public Health Research Programme (project code 09/3001/13). Anna Goodman contributed to this work while funded by a postdoctoral fellowship from the NIHR. The views in the journal publications and in this press release are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the NIHR, the Department of Health or the National Health Service.
The National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research (NIHR PHR) Programme was launched in autumn 2008. It commissions research to evaluate public health interventions, providing new knowledge on the benefits, costs, acceptability and wider effect of non-NHS interventions intended to improve the health of the public and reduce inequalities in health. The scope of the programme is multi-disciplinary and broad covering a range of public health interventions. The PHR Programme is funded by the NIHR, with contributions from the CSO in Scotland, NISCHR in Wales and the HSC R&D Division, Public Health Agency in Northern Ireland.http://www.phr.nihr.ac.uk
The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) is funded by the Department of Health to improve the health and wealth of the nation through research. Since its establishment in April 2006, the NIHR has transformed research in the NHS. It has increased the volume of applied health research for the benefit of patients and the public, driven faster translation of basic science discoveries into tangible benefits for patients and the economy, and developed and supported the people who conduct and contribute to applied health research. The NIHR plays a key role in the Government's strategy for economic growth, attracting investment by the life-sciences industries through its world-class infrastructure for health research. Together, the NIHR people, programmes, centres of excellence and systems represent the most integrated health research system in the world. For further information, visit the NIHR website (http://www.nihr.ac.uk)
About UCL (University College London): Founded in 1826, UCL was the first English university established after Oxford and Cambridge, the first to admit students regardless of race, class, religion or gender and the first to provide systematic teaching of law, architecture and medicine. We are among the world's top universities, as reflected by our performance in a range of international rankings and tables. According to the Thomson Scientific Citation Index, UCL is the second most highly cited European university and the 15th most highly cited in the world. UCL has nearly 25,000 students from 150 countries and more than 9,000 employees, of whom one third are from outside the UK. The university is based in Bloomsbury in the heart of London, but also has two international campuses – UCL Australia and UCL Qatar. Our annual income is more than £800 million.
About the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine is a world-leading centre for research and postgraduate education in public and global health, with 3,500 students and more than 1,000 staff working in over 100 countries. The School is one of the highest-rated research institutions in the UK, and was recently cited as one of the world's top universities for collaborative research. The School's mission is to improve health and health equity in the UK and worldwide; working in partnership to achieve excellence in public and global health research, education and translation of knowledge into policy and practice. http://www.lshtm.ac.uk