Scientists have developed a new imaging test that could enable doctors to identify more dangerous tumours before they spread around the body - and tailor treatment accordingly.
Teams at The University of Manchester and The Institute of Cancer Research, London describe detailed development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology to map areas of oxygen deprivation within tumours.
Lack of oxygen, or hypoxia, is often a sign that a cancer is growing aggressively. Hypoxia also stimulates the growth of blood vessels within tumours, which in turn can fuel the spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body.
The new study could also lead to more effective radiotherapy planning to boost the doses of X-rays delivered to dangerous, hypoxic areas within tumours, and new ways of monitoring whether radiotherapy or some drugs are working.
The study, published in the journal Cancer Research today (Thursday), was funded by a range of organisations including Cancer Research UK, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and The Wellcome Trust.
Researchers used an emerging technology called oxygen-enhanced MRI to produce maps of hypoxia within tumours grown by implanting cancer cells into mice. The technology is now being further developed through clinical studies of cancer patients.
Oxygen-enhanced MRI works by monitoring alterations in image intensity caused by changes in the concentration of dissolved oxygen in blood plasma and tissue fluid, during inhalation of pure oxygen gas. Some tissues take up the extra oxygen more rapidly than others, which show as more intensely changing regions under the MRI scan.
The researchers predicted that images of hypoxic tumour areas would change intensity less dramatically than better oxygenated areas.
They followed a several-step process to prove their MRI technique worked at detecting areas of hypoxia, beginning with the imaging of tumours grown from a cell line of kidney cancer cells known to lead to highly hypoxic tumours.
They then imaged a slower-growing kidney tumour type and tumours grown from a line of bowel cancer cells, to show their technique also worked for less hypoxic tumours.
They cross-referenced their images against samples from the tumours viewed under the microscope to confirm their findings from the scans.
Study co-leader Dr Simon Robinson, Team Leader in Magnetic Resonance at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, said:
"Our technique uses MRI technology to detect tumours with areas of oxygen depletion, which tend to be more aggressive and more resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Our study provides strong pre-clinical evidence to validate the use of oxygen-enhanced MRI to identify, quantify and map tumour hypoxia.
Study co-leader Dr James O'Connor, Group Leader at The University of Manchester, said:
"There is currently no validated, affordable and widely available clinical imaging technique that can rapidly assess the distribution of tumour hypoxia. Our findings from studies in mice are already being translated for use on conventional clinical MRI scanners. Ultimately we hope that oxygen-enhanced MRI will not only to identify the most dangerous tumours, but to assist radiotherapy treatment planning and for monitoring treatment response."
Nell Barrie, senior science information manager at Cancer Research UK, said:
"When cancer cells run out of oxygen, they're more likely to spread from the original tumour, making the disease much harder to treat. Spotting this process in action could help improve treatment, especially for more aggressive tumours, and this early-stage research in mice will help to find new ways to use existing scanning technology to monitor and personalise each patient's treatment. By combining different techniques such as imaging and radiotherapy, these promising results can be translated into benefits for patients in the years ahead."
Notes to editors
For more information please contact Henry French on 020 7153 5582 / firstname.lastname@example.org. For enquiries out of hours, please call 07595 963613.
The Institute of Cancer Research, London, is one of the world's most influential cancer research institutes.
Scientists and clinicians at The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) are working every day to make a real impact on cancer patients' lives. Through its unique partnership with The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and 'bench-to-bedside' approach, the ICR is able to create and deliver results in a way that other institutions cannot. Together the two organisations are rated in the top four cancer centres globally.
The ICR has an outstanding record of achievement dating back more than 100 years. It provided the first convincing evidence that DNA damage is the basic cause of cancer, laying the foundation for the now universally accepted idea that cancer is a genetic disease. Today it leads the world at isolating cancer-related genes and discovering new targeted drugs for personalised cancer treatment.
As a college of the University of London, the ICR provides postgraduate higher education of international distinction. It has charitable status and relies on support from partner organisations, charities and the general public.
The ICR's mission is to make the discoveries that defeat cancer. For more information visit http://www.icr.ac.uk
About The University of Manchester
The University of Manchester, a member of the prestigious Russell Group of British universities, is the largest and most popular university in the UK. It has 20 academic schools and hundreds of specialist research groups undertaking pioneering multi-disciplinary teaching and research of worldwide significance.
The University of Manchester is one of the country's major research institutions, rated fifth in the UK in terms of 'research power' (REF 2014), and has had no fewer than 25 Nobel laureates either work or study there. The University had an annual income of £886 million in 2013/14. http://www.manchester.ac.uk
Cancer is one of The University of Manchester's research beacons - examples of pioneering discoveries, interdisciplinary collaboration and cross-sector partnerships that are tackling some of the biggest questions facing the planet. http://www.manchester.ac.uk/research/beacons/cancer/
About Cancer Research UK
- Cancer Research UK is the world's leading cancer charity dedicated to saving lives through research.
- Cancer Research UK's pioneering work into the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer has helped save millions of lives.
- Cancer Research UK receives no government funding for its life-saving research. Every step it makes towards beating cancer relies on every pound donated.
- Cancer Research UK has been at the heart of the progress that has already seen survival in the UK double in the last forty years.
- Today, 2 in 4 people survive their cancer for at least 10 years. Cancer Research UK's ambition is to accelerate progress so that 3 in 4 people will survive their cancer for at least 10 years within the next 20 years.
- Cancer Research UK supports research into all aspects of cancer through the work of over 4,000 scientists, doctors and nurses.
- Together with its partners and supporters, Cancer Research UK's vision is to bring forward the day when all cancers are cured.
For further information about Cancer Research UK's work or to find out how to support the charity, please call 0300 123 1022 or visit http://www.cancerresearchuk.org.