News Release

How a raisin can predict a toddler's future academic ability

Researchers develop simple raisin test to forecast a child's attention and learning capacity

Peer-Reviewed Publication

University of Warwick

Dieter Wolke, University of Warwick

image: Dieter Wolke view more 

Credit: University of Warwick

A simple test using a raisin can predict how well a toddler will perform academically at age eight, according to research conducted at the University of Warwick.

Using just the piece of dried fruit and a plastic cup they have devised a test based on how long a 20-month old child can wait to pick up a raisin in front of them.

The toddlers were given a raisin that was placed under an opaque cup within easy reach. After three training runs toddlers were asked to wait until they were told (60 seconds) they could touch and eat the raisin. During the study it was found that those who were born very prematurely were more likely to take the raisin before the allotted time. In a follow on study the academics found that those who couldn't inhibit their behavior as toddlers weren't performing as well in school as their full-term peers seven years later.

Senior author, Professor Dieter Wolke, who is based at the University of Warwick's Department of Psychology and at Warwick Medical School, said: "An easy, five-minute raisin game task represents a promising new tool for follow-up assessments to predict attention regulation and learning in preterm and term born children. The results also point to potential innovative avenues to early intervention after preterm birth."

The study Preterm Toddlers' Inhibitory Control Abilities Predict Attention Regulation and Academic Achievement at Age 8 Years will be published in the Nov. issue of The Journal of Pediatrics. To view the online version of the study visit

Data were collected as part of the prospective Bavarian Longitudinal Study which began in Germany in 1985 and is still underway. During the study, 558 children born at 25 to 41 weeks gestation were assessed for self-control once they were 20 months old. The results of those born preterm 25-38 weeks were compared to those born a healthy full term between 39-41weeks.

Around age eight, the same children were evaluated by a team of psychologists and pediatricians using three different behavior ratings of attention from mothers, psychologists and the whole research team. Academic achievement -- including mathematics, reading and spelling/writing -- was assessed utilizing standardized tests.

The findings concluded that the lower the gestational age, the lower a toddler's inhibitory contro l-- and the more likely those children would have poor attention skills and low academic achievement at eight years old

Julia Jaekel, lead author of the study and honorary research fellow at the University of Warwick and assistant professor of child and family studies at University of Tennessee, Knoxville, said: "This new finding is a key piece in the puzzle of long-term underachievement after preterm birth".

The academics believe that being able to identify cognitive problems early on could result in the development of specialist, tailored education to help prevent these children underachieving at school and later on as adults.


Prof. Wolke is based at the University of Warwick, Department of Psychology and at Warwick Medical School which conducts research into areas including epidemiology, trials of complex interventions at individual, family and community levels, and understanding socio-cultural and environmental determinants of mental health and wellbeing.

Photocaption: Prof. Dieter Wolke

For further details please contact:

Nicola Jones
Communications Manager
University of Warwi

On Thursday 19 Nov the article will be freely available on the homepage of as a Featured Article. After four days, it will be removed from the homepage, but the article will remain freely available on Copies of the article are available to the media prior to embargo from or

Notes to Editors

Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics

Title: Preterm Toddlers' Inhibitory Control Abilities Predict Attention Regulation and Academic Achievement at Age 8 Years


List of authors: Dr Julia Jaekel, University of Tennessee, Knoxville & Dept. of Psychology, University of Warwick; Dr. Suna Eryigit-Madzwamuse; University of Brighton & Dept. of Psychology, University of Warwick; Prof. Dieter Wolke, Dept. of Psychology, University of Warwick & Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick.

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