News Release

The unknown consequences of plastic’s legacy, found in seabirds around the world

Peer-Reviewed Publication

Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

Bioaccumulation of additives from ingested plastics in seabirds' preen gland oil

image: Photo : Great Shearwater and ingested plastics taken by Peter Ryan view more 

Credit: Hideshige Takada/ TUAT

Seabirds from Gough Island in the south Atlantic, Marion Island near Antarctica and the coasts of both Hawaii and Western Australia have a dangerous habit: eating plastic. Across 32 species of seabirds sampled from around the globe, an international team from 18 institutions in seven countries found that up to 52 % of the birds not only ate plastic, but also accumulated the plastic’s chemical components in their bodies.

The researchers published their results on October 11th, 2021 in Environmental Monitoring and Contaminants Research.

“Globally, approximately 400 million metric tons of plastics are produced each year, and a portion of these escape into the environment, eventually find their way into the oceans,” said corresponding author Hideshige Takada, professor in the Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry (LOG), Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology. “When floating on the sea surface or stranded on beaches, plastics are exposed to UV radiation from the sun and break down into smaller fragments.”

These fragments, as well as resin pellets used as plastic feedstock that also make their way into the waterways, are not biodegradable nor do they sink. They are similar in size to seabirds’ natural prey of small fish and insects, and they are light enough to float or move with the currents.

“Consequently, huge amounts of plastics are available to a suite of consumers in the world’s oceans,” Takada said. “As of 2020, 180 species of seabirds, corresponding to half of the total species of seabirds around the globe, have been reported to have ingested plastics. It has also been predicted that by 2050, 99% of seabird species will have ingested plastics.”

While eating plastic can cause physical damage and be a direct cause for seabird death, according to Takada, little is known about the biological consequences of consuming the chemicals added to bind, stabilize or otherwise improve plastic used in food packing, fishing gear and more.

“It was believed that additives are not easily available for leaching or accumulation in biological tissues as they are kneaded into the polymer matrix during plastic production,” Takada said. “However, it has been demonstrated that oily components in digestive fluids can act as organic solvents to facilitate additive leaching.”

As a result, Takada said, plastic additives can be accumulated in seabirds’ tissue.  

“In this study, we aimed to understand the spread threat of plastic-mediated accumulation of chemical additives to seabirds on a global basis,” Takada said.

The researchers analyzed oil from the preen gland, located just above the tail, from 145 seabirds in 16 different locations around the world. By examining the chemical concentrations in this oil, the researchers can determine the contaminant burden of the bird’s internal fat stores. They procured the oil by wiping the gland, which can be done without harm to the bird. They also examined the preen gland oil and stomach contents of 54 bird carcasses found on the beaches.

The researchers found one additive accumulated in 16 of the birds, and other additives in 67 of the birds. 

“High concentrations of additives were detected in seabirds that also contained large, ingested plastic loads,” Takada said, noting that the birds could also receive additives initially ingested by their natural prey, these occurrence patterns suggest that additives are derived mainly from directly ingested plastics. “The detection additives demonstrated that significant portions of the world’s seabirds — 10 to 30% — are likely the accumulate chemicals directly from ingesting plastics, but the health consequences of this are not fully understood.”

The researchers plan to further explore the biological effects of the accumulated additives in seabirds.

Other contributors include first author Rei Yamashita, Nagako Hiki, Fumika Kashiwada and Kaoruko Mizukawa, LOG, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan; Britta Denise Hardesty and Lauren Roman, CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; David Hyrenbach, Marine Science Programs at Oceanic Institute, Hawaii Pacific University, United States; Peter G. Ryan and Ben Dilley, FitzPatrick Institute of African Ornithology, DST-NRF Centre of Excellence, University of Cape Town, South Africa; Juan Pablo Muñoz-Pérez and Carlos A. Valle, Colegio de Ciencias Biológicas y Ambientales COCIBA and Galápagos Science Center GSC, Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ, Ecuador; Christopher K. Pham, OKEANOS R&D Centre, University of the Azores, Portugal; João Frias, Marine and Freshwater Research Centre (MFRC), Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Ireland; Bungo Nishizawa, Akinori Takahashi, Jean-Baptiste Thiebot, Nobuo Kokubun, Yuuki Y. Watanabe and Kozue Shiomi, National Institute of Polar Research, Japan; Alexis Will, Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, United States;  Takashi Yamamoto, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Japan; Ui Shimabukuro, Department of Polar Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Japan; and Yutaka Watanuki, Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University, Japan. The following researchers have secondary affiliations: Yamashita, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Japan; Hardesty, Centre for Marine Sociology, University of Tasmania, Australia; Roman, Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Australia; Muñoz-Pérez, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia; Shiomi, Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Japan; and Yamamoto, Meiji Institute for Advanced Study of Mathematical Sciences, Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Properties, Meiji University, Japan.

The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan supported this research.


For information about the Takada laboratory, please visit

Original publication

Environmental Monitoring and Contaminants Research Vol.1, pp. 97–112, 2021


About Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology

TUAT is a distinguished university in Japan dedicated to science and technology. TUAT focuses on agriculture and engineering that form the foundation of industry, and promotes education and research fields that incorporate them. Boasting a history of over 140 years since our founding in 1874, TUAT continues to boldly take on new challenges and steadily promote fields. With high ethics, TUAT fulfills social responsibility in the capacity of transmitting science and technology information towards the construction of a sustainable society where both human beings and nature can thrive in a symbiotic relationship. For more information, please visit


Hideshige Takada, Ph.D.
Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry (LOG),
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Japan

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