Latest News Releases 24 November
Given its environmental toxicity, ammonia is removed during wastewater purification and then used for fertilizers or fuel. However, this process is very energy and chemical intensive. Now, researchers have shown that the application of an external electric field can greatly enhance the efficiency of ammonia removal from wastewater, making it more energy- and cost-effective.
- Water Research
Exercise makes a big difference when added to fasting. When study participants exercised, they reached ketosis on average three and a half hours earlier in the fast and produced 43% more BHB. The theory is that the initial exercise burns through a substantial amount of the body’s glucose, prompting a quicker transition to ketosis. Without exercise, the participants hit ketosis about 20 to 24 hours into the fast.
- Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Using AI predictive analytics, researchers created an algorithm called the Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BiLSTM). It examines several variables across four key domains: administrative variables (e.g., length of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, hours between hospital and ICU admission, etc.), vital signs (e.g., heart rate and pulse oximetry, etc.), demographics (e.g., age and gender), and laboratory tests (e.g., serum glucose, creatinine, platelet count, etc.). Compared to other algorithms, the BiLSTM is a more complex subset of machine learning – called deep learning – that uses neural networks to increase its predictive power.
- Scientific Reports
Mounded, luminous clouds of gas and dust glow in this Hubble image of a Herbig-Haro object known as HH 45. Herbig-Haro objects are a rarely seen type of nebula that occurs when hot gas ejected by a newborn star collides with the gas and dust around it at hundreds of miles per second, creating bright shock waves. In this image, blue indicates ionized oxygen (O II) and purple shows ionized magnesium (Mg II). Researchers were particularly interested in these elements because they can be used to identify shocks and ionization fronts. This object is located in the nebula NGC 1977, which itself is part of a complex of three nebulae called The Running Man. NGC 1977 – like its companions NGC 1975 and NGC 1973 – is a reflection nebula, which means that it doesn’t emit light on its own, but reflects light from nearby stars, like a streetlight illuminating fog. Hubble observed this region to look for stellar jets and planet-forming disks around young stars, and examine how their environment affects the evolution of such disks.
A jet from a newly formed star flares into the shining depths of reflection nebula NGC 1977 in this Hubble image. The jet (the orange object at the bottom center of the image) is being emitted by the young star Parengo 2042, which is embedded in a disk of debris that could give rise to planets. The star powers a pulsing jet of plasma that stretches over two light-years through space, bending to the north in this image. The gas of the jet has been ionized until it glows by the radiation of a nearby star, 42 Orionis. This makes it particularly useful to researchers because its outflow remains visible under the ionizing radiation of nearby stars. Typically the outflow of jets like this would only be visible as it collided with surrounding material, creating bright shock waves that vanish as they cool. In this image, red and orange colors indicate the jet and glowing gas of related shocks. The glowing blue ripples that seem to be flowing away from the jet to the right of the image are bow shocks facing the star 42 Orionis (not shown). Bow shocks happen in space when streams of gas collide, and are named after the crescent-shaped waves made by a ship as it moves through water. The bright western lobe of the jet is cocooned in a series of orange arcs that diminish in size with increasing distance from the star, forming a cone or spindle shape. These arcs may trace the ionized outer rim of a disk of debris around the star with a radius of 500 times the distance between the Sun and Earth and a sizable (170 astronomical units) hole in the center of the disk. The spindle-like shape may trace the surface of an outflow of material away from the disk and is estimated to be losing the mass of approximately a hundred-million Suns every year. NGC 1977 is part of a trio of reflection nebulae that make up the Running Man Nebula in the constellation Orion.
The Himalayan-Tibetan plateau is a unique geological construction that has long been a source of fascination for scientists. While it is known the plateau resulted from the Indian continental plate crashing into the Eurasian continental plate, an exact understanding of the subterranean architecture was missing. But not anymore. In a culmination of decades of research, scientists have finally profiled the deep behaviors and structure of intercontinental collision.
- Earth Science Frontiers
Publication in Nature : by combining approaches of protein localization in the cell and inter-protein interactions, the team of Denis Lafontaine, RNA Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, Université libre de Bruxelles, has determined how protein communities are organized in a cell and identified new proteins with an important role in ribosome production. The work was carried out in collaboration with Profs Trey Ideker (University of California San Diego, La Jolla, U.S.A.) and Emma Lundberg (KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden).
Carnegie’s Yingwei Fei and Lin Wang were part of an international research team that synthesized a new ultrahard form of carbon glass with a wealth of potential practical applications for devices and electronics. It is the hardest known glass with the highest thermal conductivity among all glass materials.
A team of researchers at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Mexico, has discovered lithium in the oldest and coldest brown dwarf where the presence of this valuable element has been confirmed so far. This substellar object, called Reid 1B, preserves intact the earliest known lithium deposit in our cosmic neighbourhood, dating back to a time before the formation of the binary system to which it belongs. The discovery was made using the OSIRIS spectrograph on the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Garafía, La Palma), in the Canary Islands. The study has just been published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
- Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
A team led by University of Pennsylvania biologists found a way to account for biases in data collected by members of the public, using it to create a comprehensive abundance map of the tick responsible for transmitting Lyme disease.
- Journal of The Royal Society Interface
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One in five U.S. adults will experience a mental illness in their lifetime, according to the National Alliance of Mental Health. But standard treatments can be slow to work and cause side effects. To find better solutions, a Virginia Tech researcher has joined a renaissance of research on a long-banned class of drugs that could combat several forms of mental illness and, in mice, have achieved long-lasting results from just one dose.
- Cell Reports