Latest News Releases 14 October
The remarkable diversification of mammals and birds after the demise of the dinosaurs 66 million years ago is well known; but what happened to the snakes? According to a study publishing October 14th in the open-access journal PLOS Biology by Michael Grundler at the University of California, Los Angeles and Daniel Rabosky at the University of Michigan, snakes experienced a similarly spectacular burst of evolution from unassuming insectivorous ancestors to diverse lineages that included the newly available birds, fish and small mammals in their diets.
- PLoS Biology
A new computational analysis suggests that, beyond the initial effect of one infected person arriving and spreading disease to a previously uninfected population, the continuous arrival of more infected individuals has a significant influence on the evolution and severity of the local outbreak. Mattia Mazzoli, Jose Javier Ramasco, and colleagues present these findings in the open-access journal PLOS Computational Biology.
- PLoS Computational Biology
Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites have already demonstrated very high photovoltaic efficiencies of greater than 25%. The prevailing wisdom in the field is that the organic (carbon- and hydrogen-containing) molecules in the material are crucial to achieving this impressive performance because they are believed to suppress defect-assisted carrier recombination.
- Cell Reports Physical Science
Researchers at the University of Arkansas have demonstrated the first use of a noninvasive optical technique to determine complex biochemical changes in cancers treated with immunotherapy.
- Cancer Research
Researchers confirmed their and other groups’ earlier findings that infants, children and adolescents are equally capable of carrying high levels of live, replicating SARS-CoV-2 in their respiratory secretions.
- The Journal of Infectious Diseases
- NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Massachusetts Center for Pathogen Readiness, Mark and Lisa Schwartz
Hannah Bush, a music therapist at West Virginia University, performs for a patient. In a new study, Bush—an assistant professor in the WVU School of Medicine—found that live music performed by a licensed music therapist lowered the heart rates of pediatric patients in critical care. Her study is unique because it focuses on live music intervention for children, rather than adults, on life support.
- American Journal of Critical Care
Researchers discovered a function of a protein complex, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2, in an antiviral defense mechanism. This protein complex limits HSV-1 virus infection through rapid activation of antiviral immunity and protects the host by preventing encephalitis — brain inflammation — and possible death due to HSV-1 infection.
- Nature Communications
Jellyfish have voracious appetites, and they aren’t considered the most selective eaters. Almost anything that gets stuck to their tentacles winds up in the gelatinous sack that they use to digest their food. This “take what comes” feeding strategy has clouded our understanding of which foods jellyfish survive on and how they fit in food webs. However, new research from the Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries (IOF) used two biochemical tools, stable isotopes and fatty acids, to begin unlocking the secrets of jellyfish feeding.
- Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Two researchers affiliated with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility have been selected by their peers for the distinct honor of Fellow of the American Physical Society. The APS announced its 2021 Fellows on Oct. 13.
Rice University engineers are printing 3D lattices of glass and crystal with sub-200 nanometer resolution. The technique could make it practical to print micro-scale electronic, mechanical and photonic devices.
- Nature Materials
Increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity by 17 minutes per day, adding 54 minutes of walking per day, or reducing 249 minutes of sedentary time per day corresponded to a 5% higher peak oxygen uptake during exercise. Individuals with higher than the average number of steps or higher than the average amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among study participants also had above average peak oxygen uptake values regardless of how much sedentary time they had during the day.
- European Heart Journal
- NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, NIH/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, , , , ,