Simulations developed by Brown University mathematicians provide new details of how sickle cell disease manifests inside red blood cells, which could help in developing new treatments.
Antibiotics are lifesaving drugs, but overuse is leading to antibiotic resistance, one of the world's most pressing health threats. Scientists identified 11 genetic markers in blood that accurately distinguished between viral and bacterial infections 80 to 90 percent of the time. The finding is important because physicians don't have a good way to confirm bacterial infections like pneumonia and more-often-than-not default to an antibiotic.
The structure of a protein key to the survival and spread of a virus that affects salmon could help researchers form strategies to treat the flu in humans.
Choosing between sex or sleep presents a behavioral quandary for many species, including the fruit fly. A multi-institution team has found that, in Drosophila at least, males and females deal with these competing imperatives in fundamentally different ways, they report July 28 in the journal Nature Communications.
A brain penetrant drug -- a small-molecule mimetic of BDNF, or brain derived neurotrophic factor -- is able to improve brain performance in Rett syndrome mice -- specifically synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and object location memory. The hippocampus is involved in learning and memory. The drug also increased the distance mice traveled in an open field test, a measure of general locomotor activity, to normal levels.
A team of researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and the Salk Institute for Biological Studies describe development and application of new electron microscopic imaging tools and a selective stain for DNA to visualize the three-dimensional structure of chromatin -- a complex of molecules that helps pack six feet of DNA into each cell nucleus, construct chromosomes and control gene expression and DNA replication.
Zebrafish deficient in vitamin E produce offspring beset by behavioral impairment and metabolic problems.
Surgeons were able to identify and remove a greater number of cancerous nodules from lung cancer patients when combining intraoperative molecular imaging (IMI) -- through the use of a contrast agent that makes tumor cells glow during surgery -- with preoperative positron emission tomography (PET) scans. The study from the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania is the first to show how effective the combination of IMI with the tumor-glowing agent can be when combined with traditional PET imaging.
Findings of the latest study of the Joslin 50-Year Medalists, who have had type 1 diabetes for at least 50 years, re-emphasize the importance of good blood glucose control and exercise in reducing complications and mortality rates for these older individuals.
Using an array of modern biochemical and structural biology techniques, researchers from Boston University School of Medicine have begun to unravel the mystery of how acidity influences a small protein called serum amyloid A. The findings, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, may help design new treatments for the life-threatening human disorder called secondary systemic amyloidosis.