A major health problem in older people is age-associated osteoporosis -- the thinning of bone and the loss of bone density that increases the risk of fractures. Researchers have now detailed an underlying mechanism leading to that osteoporosis. When this mechanism malfunctions, progenitor cells stop creating bone-producing cells, and instead create fat cells. Knowledge of this mechanism can provide targets in the search for novel bone-loss.
Group A Streptococcus bacteria cause illnesses ranging from mild nuisances like strep throat to life-threatening conditions such as flesh-eating disease, also known as necrotizing fasciitis. Life-threatening infections occur when the bacteria spread underneath the surface of the skin or throat and invade the underlying soft tissue. Researchers have found two group A Streptococcus genes involved in invasive infections, which may be potential targets for therapeutics.
The ability to successfully navigate in the environment is essential both for animals searching for food or escaping predators, as well as for human urban dwellers. It is something we take for granted, but under the hood, it is supported by still incompletely understood brain networks that continuously calculate our position in the environment. Moreover, the location where certain experience occurred is an indispensable building block of memory.
A new study published in JNCI Cancer Spectrum finds that smoking negatively impacts long-term survival after breast cancer. Quitting smoking after diagnosis may reduce the risk of dying from breast cancer.
Investigators at CHLA have identified the molecular pathway used to foster neuroblastoma and demonstrated use of a clinically available agent, ruxolitinib, to block the pathway.
Multiple sclerosis can be inhibited or reversed using a novel gene therapy technique that stops the disease's immune response in mouse models, University of Florida Health researchers have found.
A novel psychological therapy that encourages addressing emotional experiences related to trauma, conflict and relationship problems has been found helpful for people with the chronic pain condition fibromyalgia. A research team led by Mark A. Lumley, Ph.D., distinguished professor of psychology at Wayne State University, has released the results of its research in the prestigious journal, PAIN.
Inspired by the Labyrinth of Greek mythology, a new chip etched with fluid channels sends blood samples through a hydrodynamic maze to separate out rare circulating cancer cells into a relatively clean stream for analysis. It is already in use in a breast cancer clinical trial.
An interdisciplinary team of Vanderbilt University researchers has received a two-year, $2-million federal grant to develop an 'organ-on-chip' model for two genetic forms of epilepsy. These disorders affect both brain and heart and improved modeling could lead to new drug treatments.
Chronic tissue inflammation resulting from obesity is an underlying cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. But the mechanism by which this occurs has remained cloaked, until now. In a paper, published in the journal Cell, University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers identified exosomes -- extremely small vesicles or sacs secreted from most cell types -- as the missing link.