A team of researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and the Salk Institute for Biological Studies describe development and application of new electron microscopic imaging tools and a selective stain for DNA to visualize the three-dimensional structure of chromatin -- a complex of molecules that helps pack six feet of DNA into each cell nucleus, construct chromosomes and control gene expression and DNA replication.
Zebrafish deficient in vitamin E produce offspring beset by behavioral impairment and metabolic problems.
Surgeons were able to identify and remove a greater number of cancerous nodules from lung cancer patients when combining intraoperative molecular imaging (IMI) -- through the use of a contrast agent that makes tumor cells glow during surgery -- with preoperative positron emission tomography (PET) scans. The study from the Abramson Cancer Center at the University of Pennsylvania is the first to show how effective the combination of IMI with the tumor-glowing agent can be when combined with traditional PET imaging.
Findings of the latest study of the Joslin 50-Year Medalists, who have had type 1 diabetes for at least 50 years, re-emphasize the importance of good blood glucose control and exercise in reducing complications and mortality rates for these older individuals.
Using an array of modern biochemical and structural biology techniques, researchers from Boston University School of Medicine have begun to unravel the mystery of how acidity influences a small protein called serum amyloid A. The findings, published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, may help design new treatments for the life-threatening human disorder called secondary systemic amyloidosis.
Research led by a University of Cincinnati scientist shows the impact of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis on patients receiving non-renal solid organ transplantation.
Using the gene-editing technology CRISPR, scientists have shed light on a rare, sometimes fatal syndrome that causes children to gradually lose the ability to manufacture vital blood cells. The research, at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, suggests new lines of investigation into how to treat this condition -- dyskeratosis congenita -- which is characterized by shortened telomeres. Short telomeres lead to progressive DNA damage that accumulates over time.
Social dominance, and the dynamic it creates, may be so naturally ingrained, University of Washington researchers say, that toddlers as young as 17 months old not only can perceive who is dominant, but also anticipate that the dominant person will receive more rewards.
In one of the largest efforts to build a comprehensive catalog of genetic vulnerabilities in cancer, researchers have identified more than 760 genes upon which cancer cells from multiple types are strongly dependent for their growth and survival. While many of these dependencies are specific to certain cancer types, about 10 percent are common across multiple cancers, suggesting that a relatively small number of therapies may combat multiple cancer types. Mutations accounted for only a small percentage of dependencies.
A quest to analyze the unique features of individual human brains evolved into the so-called Midnight Scan Club. Nico Dosenbach, M.D., Ph.D., an assistant professor of pediatric and developmental neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, and colleagues used imaging techniques to collect a massive amount of data on individual brains. Their work led to 10 individual-specific connectomes -- detailed maps of neural brain connections that reveal spatial and organizational variability in brain networks.