HIV-positive children in South Africa are more likely to have developmental disabilities compared to children who are HIV negative. HIV-positive children ages 4 to 6 had nearly four times the odds of delays in sitting, standing, walking, and speaking, and more than twice the odds of a hearing disability and cognitive delay compared to HIV-negative children.
A team of scientists from The Forsyth Institute, a global leader in oral health research, in collaboration with the NIH-funded Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS), has published the results of a new study indicating that differences in the mouth bacteria of youth born with HIV may increase their risk of cavities. The researchers found that HIV-infected youth, compared with uninfected youth, had lower numbers of Corynebacterium, a microbe that is abundant in dental plaque of healthy individuals.
A team led by the University of California San Diego has developed a chip that can detect a type of genetic mutation known as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and send the results in real time to an electronic device. The chip is at least 1,000 times more sensitive at detecting an SNP than current technology. The advance could lead to cheaper, faster and portable biosensors for early detection of genetic markers for diseases such as cancer.
Approval of a new drug for the treatment of opioid abuse sharply increased the number of Medicaid recipients receiving medication-assisted therapy for opioid abuse disorders. But as the use of recommended treatment increased, economic and racial disparities also widened, according to a new study.
Health care insurers including Medicare, Medicaid and major private insurers have not done enough to combat the opioid epidemic, suggests a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.
Cannabis use may be decreasing among teens, but a new study showed that American adults have increasingly used cannabis daily since 2007. The study found that nondaily cannabis use decreased among those aged 12 to 25 and 35 to 49 before 2007, and increased among all adults after 2007, particularly among adults 26 to 34.
The study of a Quebec family with an unusual gene provides novel insight into how our brain is built and, according to the McGill-led team of scientists, offers a better understanding of psychiatric disorders such as depression, addictions and schizophrenia.
Of all the groups that try to quit smoking, it seems hardest for those who suffer from anxiety and depression. University of Houston psychology doctoral student Brooke Kauffman is targeting that group, creating personalized feedback to help them quit smoking.
A new study led by public health researchers at Tufts University School of Medicine reports significant food insecurity for adults on probation in Rhode Island. Nearly three-quarters of the participants experienced food insecurity over a 30-day period, with almost half having very low food security.
Systematic review of task-related neuroimaging studies found addicted individuals demonstrate increased activity in these networks during drug-related processing but decreases across all other functions.