A new study explores factors increasing the risk for substance use problems among African-American/Black and Latino adults residing in a high-risk urban community, as well as patterns of resilience. It reveals that serious risk factors are highly prevalent and strongly associated with substance misuse; however, a substantial proportion could be characterized as resilient, and evidenced substance use problems at rates comparable to the general U.S. population.
Cellular-level changes to a part of the brain's reward system induced by chronic exposure to the psychoactive component of marijuana may contribute to the drug's pleasurable and potentially addictive qualities, suggests a study in young mice published in JNeurosci. The results could advance our understanding of marijuana's effects on the developing brain as the drug's rapidly changing legal status increases its recreational and medical use in the United States.
A study by an international consortium of scientists reached a major milestone in establishing a baseline understanding of gene expression across healthy human tissues, and linking genes to disease.
A new UC San Francisco-led study shows that failure to follow this basic principle of population science -- a common complaint about research in the cognitive sciences -- can profoundly skew the results of brain imaging studies, leading to errors that may be throwing off neuroscientists' understanding of normal brain development.
A DNA variant--located in the DNMT3B gene and commonly found in people of European and African descent--increases the likelihood of developing nicotine dependence, smoking heavily, and developing lung cancer, according to a new study led by RTI International.
Cannabidiol, a non-intoxicating derivative from cannabis, has been shown to reduce seizures and autism-like behaviors in a mouse model of a genetic disorder, Dravet syndrome. Children with this devastating condition have difficult-to-treat epilepsy, cognitive impairments, and problems with social interactions. The researchers also studied how therapeutic effects of cannabidiol relate to changes in signaling between certain brain neurons.
The National Institute on Drug Abuse has awarded $5 million to researchers at UCLA to develop a resource and data center for millions of pieces of research, lab samples, statistics and other data aimed at boosting research into the effects of substance abuse on HIV/AIDS.
When hunger pangs strike, we usually interpret them as a cue to reach for a snack; when we start to feel full, we take it as a sign that we should stop eating. But new research shows that these associations can be learned the other way around, such that satiety becomes a cue to eat more, not less. The findings suggest that internal, physical states themselves can serve as contexts that cue specific learned behaviors.
Up to 6.6 million cigarette smokers will live substantially longer if cigarette smoking is replaced by vaping over a ten-year period, calculates a research team led by investigators from Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center. In all, cigarette smokers who switch to e-cigarettes could live 86.7 million more years with policies that encourage cigarette smokers to switch completely to e-cigarettes.
The University of Illinois at Chicago College of Nursing has received a four-year federal grant to assist HIV-positive prisoners in Indonesia -- a southeast Asian country where the number of new infections is increasing rapidly.