A review of more than 10,000 medical records in urban Malawi, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe has yielded important insight about pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in these communities as well as the frequency with which different complications occur. The data provide researchers conducting the DELIVER study a frame of reference for assessing the safety of daily PrEP and the monthly dapivirine ring in pregnant women but should be of value to local authorities as well.
UC San Diego scientists have taken the connection between wisdom, loneliness and biology one step further, reporting that wisdom and loneliness appear to influence -- and/or be influenced by -- microbial diversity of the gut.
An epigenetic modification that occurs in a major cell type in the brain's reward circuitry controls how stress early in life increases susceptibility to additional stress in adulthood, researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have learned.
UC Davis Health researchers studying executive control in adolescents and young adults with autism have published new research that suggests a unique approach, rather than impairment.
UT Southwestern scientists have identified key genes involved in brain waves that are pivotal for encoding memories. The findings, published online this week in Nature Neuroscience, could eventually be used to develop novel therapies for people with memory loss disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.
If approved, the monthly dapivirine vaginal ring would be the first biomedical HIV prevention method designed specifically for cisgender women, as well as the first long-acting method. Looking ahead, researchers are hopeful that a vaginal ring that could be used for longer than a month at a time might also be made available someday. Indeed, they report, a 90-day dapivirine ring has passed the first test, with Phase I study results supporting its further development.
After 'trying on' three placebo methods for the delivery of a rectal microbicide, study participants said they could see all of them - a douche, rectal suppository and fast-dissolving rectal insert - fitting into their daily lives. These results, which also identified the product attributes most important to participants, underscore the importance of developing a range of HIV prevention products for people who practice anal sex.
The drug buprenorphine is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder, but many who misuse opioids also take benzodiazepines -- drugs that treat anxiety and similar conditions. Many treatment centers hesitate to treat patients addicted to opioids who also take benzodiazepines. Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis studied overdose risk in people taking buprenorphine and found that the drug lowered risk, even in people taking benzodiazepines.
Researchers have mapped the physical organization of the brain of a microscopic soil-living nematode worm called Caenorhabditis elegans, creating a new model for the architecture of the animal's brain and how it processes information. The scientists say the worms' brains might have a lot more in common with larger animals than previously thought.
Irregular sleep schedules can affect mood and risk of developing symptoms of depression according to a study of first-year medical residents that used Fitbits and smartphones.