Researchers at Columbia University Irving Medical Center (CUIMC) and New York State Psychiatric Institute (NYSPI) found that people with schizophrenia who experience auditory hallucinations tend to hear what they expect, an exaggerated version of a perceptual distortion that is common among other people without hallucinations. The researchers found that elevated dopamine could make some patients rely more on expectations, which could then result in hallucinations.
Young adults with thinner cortex in particular brain regions are more impulsive during a decision-making task than teens with thicker cortex, according to a large correlational study of adolescents from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. The results, published in JNeurosci, suggest that individual differences in brain structure could be used to identify youth at higher risk of making dangerous choices.
The researchers employed the triple labeling technique to analyze stem cells in the brain, the intestine, and testis, using additional tricks to effectively expand the technique to quadruple labeling of dividing stem cells. The new method will increase the accuracy and speed of stem cell division analysis and reveal new populations of stem cells.
MIT neuroscientists have found that certain neurons in the brain are responsible for grouping behaviors together into a single habitual routine, in a process known as 'chunking.' These neurons, located in a brain region highly involved in habit formation, fire at the beginning and the end of a habitual behavior, but not in the middle.
Most medical conditions are largely defined by their physical symptoms. Psychiatric illnesses, however, are largely defined by a person's behavior. A UCLA-led study challenges that distinction, identifying many shared -- and distinct -- patterns of gene expression in the brains of people with autism, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The data hint at potential targets that may one day lead to new treatment approaches.
Few research efforts have focused on interventions for adults, but a new six-year collaborative trial tested two treatments for adults with autism -- and found strong, but different, results.
Opioid cessation in non-cancer pain may be more successful when depression is treated to remission, a Saint Louis University study shows.
Searching for clues to complex social behaviors, experiments found that laboratory rats - much like humans -- will approach distressed juveniles but avoid distressed adults -- responses known as social affective behaviors, Boston College researchers report in Nature Neuroscience. Additionally, the brain's insular cortex region is required for proper reactions to others in distress. Further, changes in insular cortex excitability, caused by the hormone oxytocin, likely account for the social affective behaviors.
Children with ADHD engaged in substance use at a younger age and had a significantly higher prevalence of regular marijuana and cigarette use as adults.
In an assessment of their 'depression literacy' program, which has already been taught to tens of thousands, Johns Hopkins researchers say the Adolescent Depression Awareness Program (ADAP) achieved its intended effect of encouraging many teenagers to speak up and seek adult help for themselves or a peer.