The dapivirine vaginal ring, which had been found safe and to help protect against HIV in two Phase III trials in African women, was shown to be safe and acceptable in a study of US teen girls. Regulatory approval is being sought for the ring in women ages 18-45; the new study provides data that would be needed for expanding approval to include girls under age 18, one of the highest-risk groups in Africa.
Researchers at the University of Chicago have demonstrated, for the first time, that a key protein complex in the brain is linked to the ability of young animals to learn behavioral patterns from adults. The findings, published July 24 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, show that a specific neural signal -- the mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) cascade -- regulates the ability of juvenile zebra finches to form accurate memories of songs taught to them by adult birds.
The antiretroviral drug dapivirine contained in a vaginal ring for HIV prevention, is absorbed in very low concentrations into breastmilk, according to a US study of the dapivirine ring in women who were no longer nursing their babies but still producing milk. Researchers are now planning studies of the ring in African women who are breastfeeding as well as during pregnancy, when there may be a greater risk of acquiring HIV.
New research in an animal model suggests a high-fat diet during pregnancy alters the development of the brain and endocrine system of offspring. The new study links an unhealthy diet during pregnancy to mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression in children.
New research has identified the culprit behind the wiring problems in the brains of people with schizophrenia. When researchers transplanted human brain cells generated from individuals diagnosed with childhood-onset schizophrenia into mice, the animal's nerve cell networks did not mature properly and the mice exhibited the same anti-social and anxious behaviors seen in people with the disease.
Discovery of a phosphorylation event outside of the cell offers a new avenue for targeting chronic and pathologic pain, a new study reports.
A study looking at the cumulative effects of depression in youth, found that young people with chronic or severe forms of depression were at elevated risk for developing a problem with cannabis in later adolescence.
A new study of young persons at clinical high-risk of developing psychosis has identified measures of violence potential that may be useful in predicting both the increased risk of future violent behavior and the actual development of psychosis.
Women and girls with autism may face greater challenges with real world planning, organization and other daily living skills, according to a study published in the journal Autism Research.
Researchers have found striking evidence for the role of genetics in shaping a fundamental feature of human behavior: how children pay attention to the world -- what they look at, and what they don't -- is strongly influenced by genetics.