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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

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Showing releases 101-125 out of 1151.

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Public Release: 18-Dec-2020
Science Advances
Ultra-fast gas flows through tiniest holes in 2D membranes
Researchers from the National Graphene Institute at the University of Manchester and the University of Pennsylvania have identified ultra-fast gas flows through the tiniest holes in one-atom-thin membranes, in a study published in Science Advances .
Royal society, European Research Council, National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Erica Brockmeier
ekbrock@upenn.edu
University of Pennsylvania

Public Release: 18-Dec-2020
Science Advances
New topological properties found in "old" material of Cobalt disulfide
Researchers working with the Schoop Lab discovered the presence of Weyl nodes in bulk CoS2 that allow them to make predictions about its surface properties. The material hosts Weyl-fermions and Fermi-arc surface states within its band structure, which may enable it to serve as a platform for exotic phenomena.
The National Science Foundation through the Princeton Center for Complex Materials, a Materials Research Science/ Engineering Center DMR-1420541; Princeton University/ Princeton Catalysis Initiative; the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Grant GBMF9064

Contact: Wendy Plump
wplump@princeton.edu
Princeton University

Public Release: 18-Dec-2020
Cell
Discovery finds a cellular building block acts as a gel, not liquid as previously believed
University of Alberta researchers have found an answer to a fundamental question in genomic biology that has eluded scientists since the discovery of DNA: Within the nucleus of our cells, is the complex package of DNA and proteins called chromatin a solid or a liquid? The team found that chromatin is actually more like a gel. This new understanding could lead to a more accurate understanding of how the genome is encoded and decoded.
National Science Foundation, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Cancer Research Society

Contact: Ross Neitz
rneitz@ualberta.ca
780-492-5986
University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry

Public Release: 18-Dec-2020
Scientific Reports - a Nature Research journal
Monkeys, like humans, persist at tasks they've already invested in
Humans are generally reluctant to give up on something they've already committed time and effort to. It's called the "sunk costs" phenomenon, where the more resources we sink into an endeavor, the likelier we are to continue--even if we sense it's futile. A new study shows that both capuchin monkeys and rhesus macaques are susceptible to the same behavior and that it occurs more often when the monkeys are uncertain about the outcome.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Anna Varela
avarela@gsu.edu
Georgia State University

Public Release: 18-Dec-2020
PNAS
Research brief: Researchers discover new way to deliver DNA-based therapies for diseases
University of Minnesota Twin Cities researchers in the Department of Chemistry have created a new polymer to deliver DNA and RNA-based therapies for diseases. For the first time in the industry, the researchers were able to see exactly how polymers interact with human cells when delivering medicines into the body. This discovery opens the door for more widespread use of polymers in applications like gene therapy and vaccine development.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Rhonda Zurn
rzurn@umn.edu
University of Minnesota

Public Release: 18-Dec-2020
Applied Energy
NYS can achieve 2050 carbon goals: Here's how
By delving into scientific, technological, environmental and economic data, Cornell University engineering researchers examined whether New York could achieve a statewide carbon-free economy by 2050. Their finding: Yes, New York can reach this goal - and do it with five years to spare.
National Science Foundation, Cornell Atkinson

Contact: Lindsey M Hadlock
lmh267@cornell.edu
315-420-0509
Cornell University

Public Release: 18-Dec-2020
Science Advances
When light and atoms share a common vibe
Scientists from EPFL, MIT, and CEA Saclay demonstrate a state of vibration that exists simultaneously at two different times. They evidence this quantum superposition by measuring the strongest class of quantum correlations between light beams that interact with the vibration.
Swiss National Science Foundation, European Research Council's (ERC) Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme, Army Research Laboratory Center for Distributed Quantum Information (SciNet)

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
n.papageorgiou@epfl.ch
41-216-932-105
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 18-Dec-2020
Physical Review X
Compressive fluctuations heat ions in space plasma
New simulations carried out in part on the ATERUI II supercomputer in Japan have found that the reason ions exist at higher temperatures than electrons in space plasma is because they are better able to absorb energy from compressive turbulent fluctuations in the plasma. These finding have important implications for understanding observations of various astronomical objects such as the images of the accretion disk and shadow of the M87 supermassive black hole.
Science and Technology Facilities Council, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, National Science Foundation Solar, Heliospheric, and INterplanetary Environment, National Aeronautics and Space A

Contact: Dr. Hinako Fukushi
fukushi.hinako@nao.ac.jp
National Institutes of Natural Sciences

Public Release: 18-Dec-2020
Science Advances
Sound waves spin droplets to concentrate, separate nanoparticles
Mechanical engineers at Duke University have devised a method for spinning individual droplets of liquid to concentrate and separate nanoparticles for biomedical purposes. The technique is much more efficient than traditional centrifuge approaches, working its magic in under a minute instead of taking hours or days, and requires only a tiny fraction of the typical sample size. The invention could underline new approaches to applications ranging from precision bioassays to cancer diagnosis.
National Institutes of Health, the United States Army Medical Research Acquisition Activity, National Science Foundation

Contact: Ken Kingery
ken.kingery@duke.edu
919-660-8414
Duke University

Public Release: 18-Dec-2020
Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology
The 'crazy beast' that lived among the dinosaurs
New research published today in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology describes a bizarre 66 million-year-old mammal that provides profound new insights into the evolutionary history of mammals from the southern supercontinent Gondwana - recognized today as Africa, South America, Australia, Antarctica, the Indian subcontinent, and the Arabian Peninsula.
National Geographic Society, National Science Foundation

Contact: Simon Wesson
simon.wesson@tandf.co.uk
07-817-299-937
Taylor & Francis Group

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
AI-powered microscope could check cancer margins in minutes
Researchers from Rice University and MD Anderson Cancer Center have created a microscope that uses artificial intelligence to quickly and inexpensively image large tissue sections at high resolution with minimal preparation. If clinically validated, the DeepDOF microscope could allow surgeons to inspect tumor margins within minutes.
National Science Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute

Contact: Jade Boyd
jadeboyd@rice.edu
713-348-6778
Rice University

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
SARS-CoV-2-like particles very sensitive to temperature
A new study found that moderate temperature increases on glass surfaces broke down SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles structure, while humidity had very little impact. The findings suggest that as temperatures begin to drop, particles on surfaces will remain infectious longer. This is the first study to analyze the mechanics of the virus on an individual particle level, but the findings agree with large-scale observations of other coronaviruses that appear to infect more people during the winter.
National Science Foundation, National Institute of General Medical Sciences

Contact: Lisa Potter
Lisa.potter@utah.edu
801-585-3093
University of Utah

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
American Sociological Review
New study measures neighborhood inequality and violence based on everyday mobility
A new study looking at the patterns of movement from 400,000 people offers fresh insights into how a neighborhood's economic conditions mixed with the mobility patterns of its residents and visitors relates to the well-being of the neighborhood and can serve as a predictor of violence. The theory argues that a neighborhood's well-being depends not only on its own socioeconomic conditions but on the conditions of the neighborhoods its residents visit and are visited by.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Juan Siliezar
juan_siliezar@harvard.edu
401-280-3061
Harvard University

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
Nature Communications
Mission to MAARS: Long non-coding RNA may play a key role in cardiovascular disease
Through utilization of genetically modified high-risk atherosclerotic mice, a research team from Brigham and Women's Hospital identified and characterized Macrophage-Associated Atherosclerosis lncRNA Sequence (MAARS), which is expressed specifically in macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques and contributes to the progression of the disease.
National Institutes of Health, American Heart Association, Arthur K. Watson Charitable Trust, Dr. Ralph and Marian Falk Medical Research Trust, a Sarnoff Cardiovascular Research Foundation Fellowship, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Haley Bridger
hbridger@bwh.harvard.edu
978-807-5302
Brigham and Women's Hospital

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
Physical Review Letters
Stevens creates entangled photons 100 times more efficiently than previously possible
Super-fast quantum computers and communication devices could revolutionize countless aspects of our lives -- but first, researchers need a fast, efficient source of the entangled pairs of photons such systems use to transmit and manipulate information. Researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology have done just that, not only creating a chip-based photon source 100 times more efficient that previously possible, but bringing massive quantum device integration within reach.
National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Contact: Thania Benios
thania.benios@stevens.edu
917-930-5988
Stevens Institute of Technology

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
Nature Communications
Researcher boosts vegetable oil production in plant leaves
Jay Thelen, a professor of biochemistry at the University of Missouri, has found a way to boost the production of triacylglycerol -- the main component of vegetable oil -- in plant leaves, a technique that could allow producers to harvest oil from large, leafy plants that also have other uses. Sorghum, for example -- a global source of grain prized for its drought-resistant qualities -- could serve a dual role as a source of vegetable oil, creating a more efficient and valuable crop.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Austin Fitzgerald
fitzgeraldac@missouri.edu
573-882-6217
University of Missouri-Columbia

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
West coast wildfires create rare opportunity to track black carbon
The 2020 wildfires on the West Coast stymied planned research at the University of California Blue Oak Ranch Reserve, but also created a rare chance to catch the first link in the chain that connects fire-derived "black carbon" from a charred hillside with the deep ocean.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Mary Martialay
martim12@rpi.edu
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
Astrophyiscal Journal
Artificial intelligence classifies supernova explosions with unprecedented accuracy
Scientists from the Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian have trained machine learning software to classify supernovae without the traditional use of spectra. The project--the first to use real supernovae data to inform its artificial intelligence--is 82% accurate. Currently, scientists take spectra of 10-percent of the ~10,000 supernovae discovered each year. When the Rubin Observatory goes online, only 0.1-percent of the expected supernovae discoveries will be further studied without the new software.
National Science Foundation, Harvard Data Science Initiative

Contact: Amy Oliver
amy.oliver@cfa.harvard.edu
520-879-4406
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
Biological Reviews
Fertilizer runoff in streams and rivers can have cascading effects, analysis shows
Fertilizer pollution can have significant ripple effects in the food webs of streams and rivers, according to a new analysis of global data.
National Science Foundation, Long Term Ecological Research Network Office, National Science Foundation under grant

Contact: Laura Oleniacz
ljolenia@ncsu.edu
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
Nature Communications
LSU health research suggests new mechanism to balance emotional behavior
Research led by Si-Qiong June Liu, MD, PhD, Professor of Cell Biology and Anatomy at LSU Health New Orleans School of Medicine, discovered a surprising reciprocal interaction between chemicals in the brain resulting in accelerated loss of molecules that regulate brain cell communication.
National Science Foundation, Veterans Administration, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Leslie Capo
lcapo@lsuhsc.edu
504-452-9166
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
Science Advances
Organic molecules on a metal surface... a machinist's best friend
Purdue University innovators are working on technologies to make it easier to cut metals. The researchers found, using organic monolayer films created by molecular self-assembly, that the molecule chain length and its adsorption to the metal surface are key to realizing improvements.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Chris Adam
cladam@prf.org
Purdue University

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
Public cameras provide valuable insights on pandemic, consumers
Purdue University innovators have created several patented technologies that they combined into a computer system to acquire and analyze real-time visual data from millions of globally distributed network cameras.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Chris Adam
cladam@prf.org
Purdue University

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
Current Biology
Squirrels need good neighbours
Living beside familiar neighbours boosts a squirrel's chances of survival and successful breeding, new research shows.
Funders included the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the National Science Foundation, the American Society of Mammalogists and the Arctic Institute of North America.

Contact: Alex Morrison
a.morrison@exeter.ac.uk
44-079-202-78762
University of Exeter

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
American Historical Review
Why do we assume pandemics result in devastation?
Late 19th century misconceptions about outbreaks of plague in the ancient world led to an ingrained belief that pandemics inherently cause widespread death and change the course of history, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Maryland's National-Socio Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
National Science Foundation, Princeton University's Climate Change and History Research Initiative

Contact: Allaina Gallagher
agallagher@sesync.org
University of Maryland

Public Release: 17-Dec-2020
Current Biology
Territorial red squirrels live longer when they're friendly with their neighbors
Researchers publishing December 17, 2020 in the journal Current Biology found that red squirrels in the Yukon have a greater chance of survival when living near neighbors. These fitness benefits depended on familiarity, or how long the same squirrels lived next to each other. These benefits were more pronounced in older squirrels, whom the data suggested could sharply offset the effects of aging by maintaining all of their neighbors from one year to the next.
National Science Foundation, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, University of Michigan, American Society of Mammalogists, Arctic Institute of North America

Contact: David Paradela
press@cell.com
617-417-7053
Cell Press

Showing releases 101-125 out of 1151.

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