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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

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Showing releases 151-175 out of 1151.

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Public Release: 14-Dec-2020
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
UMBC team reveals possibilities of new one-atom-thick materials
New 2D materials have the potential to transform technologies, but they're expensive and difficult to synthesize. Researchers at UMBC used computer modeling to predict the properties of 2D materials that haven't yet been made in real life. These highly-accurate predictions show the possibility of materials whose properties could be "tuned" to make them more efficient than existing materials in particular applications. A separate paper demonstrated a way to integrate these materials into real electronic devices.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Sarah Hansen
sarah54@umbc.edu
University of Maryland Baltimore County

Public Release: 14-Dec-2020
JGR Biogeosciences
Fractured bedrock in forests is overlooked source of natural CO2
According to a study led by The University of Texas at Austin, CO2 is being produced deep underground in bedrock fractures. This source could account for up to 29% of the daily average CO2 emitted by the land.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Geological Society of America

Contact: Monica Kortsha
mkortsha@jsg.texas.edu
512-471-2241
University of Texas at Austin

Public Release: 14-Dec-2020
Nature Astronomy
The farthest galaxy in the universe
A team of astronomers used the Keck I telescope to measure the distance to an ancient galaxy. They deduced the target galaxy GN-z11 is not only the oldest galaxy but also the most distant. It's so distant it defines the very boundary of the observable universe itself. The team hopes this study can shed light on a period of cosmological history when the universe was only a few hundred million years old.
National Science Foundation of China, National Key R&D Program of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China-Chile Joint Research Fund

Contact: Professor Nobunari Kashikawa
n.kashikawa@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
81-035-841-4261
University of Tokyo

Public Release: 14-Dec-2020
Journal of Medical Entomology
West Nile virus infection risk is higher in less affluent neighborhoods in Baltimore, MD
In Baltimore, Maryland, people living in low-income urban neighborhoods are more at risk of contracting West Nile virus, a mosquito-borne disease, than people living in more affluent neighborhoods. So reports a new study published in the Journal of Medical Entomology.
National Science Foundation, US Army's Long Term Health Education and Training Program

Contact: Lori Quillen
quillenl@caryinstitute.org
845-677-7600 x233
Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Public Release: 14-Dec-2020
Vadose Zone Journal
What happens when rain falls on desert soils? An updated model provides answers
In a new study in Vadose Zone Journal, Desert Research Institute scientists Yuan Luo, Ph.D., Markus Berli, Ph.D., and colleagues Teamrat Ghezzehei, Ph.D. of the University of California, Merced, and Zhongbo Yu, Ph.D. of the University of Hohai, China, make important improvements to our understanding of how water moves through and gets stored in dry desert soils by refining an existing computer model.
DRI Foundation Innovation Research Program, National Science Foundation, US Army Corps of Engineers

Contact: Kelsey Fitzgerald
kelsey.fitzgerald@dri.edu
775-741-0496
Desert Research Institute

Public Release: 14-Dec-2020
Nature
Massive underground instrument finds final secret of our sun's fusion
The Borexino detector, a hyper-sensitive instrument deep underground in Italy, has finally succeeded at the nearly impossible task of detecting CNO neutrinos from our sun's core. These little-known particles reveal the last missing detail of the fusion cycle powering our sun and other stars, and could answer still-outstanding questions about the sun's composition.
National Science Foundation, Princeton University, the University of Massachusetts, Virginia Tech, Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics

Contact: Liz Fuller-Wright
lizfw@princeton.edu
609-258-5729
Princeton University

Public Release: 14-Dec-2020
Nature
'Magic' angle graphene and the creation of unexpected topological quantum states
Electrons inhabit a strange and topsy-turvy world. These infinitesimally small particles have never ceased to amaze and mystify despite the more than a century that scientists have studied them. Now, in an even more amazing twist, physicists have discovered that, under certain conditions, interacting electrons can create what are called "topological quantum states." This finding, recently published in the journal Nature, has implications for many technological fields of study, especially information technology.
The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, ExxonMobil, the Princeton Catalysis Initiative, the Elemental Strategy Initiative conducted by Japan's Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Techno

Contact: Tom Garlinghouse
lizfw@princeton.edu
609-258-5729
Princeton University

Public Release: 14-Dec-2020
Optica
Physics discovery leads to ballistic optical materials
A team led by a Purdue University scientist has found a way to create more efficient metamaterials using semiconductors and a novel aspect of physics that amplifies the activity of electrons.
National Science Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Nascent Light-Matter Interactions program, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation

Contact: Kayla Wiles
wiles5@purdue.edu
765-494-2432
Purdue University

Public Release: 14-Dec-2020
Environmental Science & Technology
Applying compost to landfills could have environmental benefits
Many people think of composting organic matter as a way of keeping solid waste out of landfills, but a new study finds there can be significant environmental benefits associated with using compost at landfills.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 14-Dec-2020
Nature Human Behaviour
New research points to effective ways to influence engagement and increase support for addressing economic inequality
Researchers have found that information about economic inequality focusing on the disadvantages facing people from the lower-socioeconomic class leads Americans to engage more with the issue and to express greater support for action to mitigate inequality.
National Science Foundation

Contact: James Devitt
james.devitt@nyu.edu
914-522-3774
New York University

Public Release: 14-Dec-2020
Neuron
Unexpected discovery leads to better understanding of migraine
Massive "plumes" of glutamate, a key neurotransmitter, surging in the brain could help explain the onset of migraine with aura--and potentially a broad swath of neurologic disease, including stroke and traumatic brain injury--according to an international study led by University of Utah Health scientists.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Telethon Foundation

Contact: Doug M Dollemore
doug.dollemore@hsc.utah.edu
801-707-5706
University of Utah Health

Public Release: 14-Dec-2020
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Ancient DNA continues to rewrite corn's 9,000-year society-shaping history
In the Dec. 14 issue of the journal the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, international team of scientists report the fully sequenced genomes of three roughly 2,000-year-old cobs from the El Gigante rock shelter in Honduras. Analysis of the three genomes reveals that these millennia-old varieties of Central American corn had South American ancestry and adds a new chapter in an emerging complex story of corn's domestication history.
Smithsonian, National Science Foundation, Pennsylvania State University, the Francis Crick Institute

Contact: Ryan Lavery
LaveryR@si.edu
202-230-4623
Smithsonian

Public Release: 14-Dec-2020
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
How computer simulation will accelerate development of human-interactive "smart robots"
Lehigh University's Jeff Trinkle, along with colleagues at other institutions, has co-authored a "Perspective" paper called "On the use of simulation in robotics: Opportunities, challenges, and suggestions for moving forward" that appears in the latest issue of PNAS arguing that "...well-validated computer simulation can provide a virtual proving ground that in many cases is instrumental in understanding safely, faster, at lower costs, and more thoroughly how the robots of the future should be designed and controlled for safe operation and improved performance."
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lori Friedman
lof214@lehigh.edu
323-377-4312
Lehigh University

Public Release: 11-Dec-2020
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)
Mystery solved with math: cytoplasmic traffic jam disrupts sleep-wake cycles?
KAIST mathematicians and their collaborators at Florida State University have identified the principle of how aging and diseases like dementia and obesity cause sleep disorders. A combination of mathematical modelling and experiments demonstrated that the cytoplasmic congestion caused by aging, dementia, and/or obesity disrupts the circadian rhythms in the human body and leads to irregular sleep-wake cycles. This finding suggests new treatment strategies for addressing unstable sleep-wake cycles.
The National Institutes of Health,The National Science Foundation,The International Human Frontiers Science Program Organization,Tthe National Research Foundation.

Contact: Younghye Cho
younghyecho@kaist.ac.kr
82-423-502-294
The Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)

Public Release: 11-Dec-2020
Nucleic Acid Research
Newly discovered toxin-antitoxin system abundant in one-cell organisms
Bacteria are always hungry, according to Thomas Wood, Biotechnology Endowed Chair and professor of chemical engineering in the Penn State College of Engineering. If you gave a single bacterium all the food it wanted, it would obtain the mass of the Earth in about two days.
National Science Foundation of China

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-5689
Penn State

Public Release: 11-Dec-2020
Nature Communications
New computational method validates images without 'ground truth'
Researchers from the McKelvey School of Engineering have developed a computational method that allows them to determine not if an entire imaging picture is accurate, but if any given point on the image is probable, based on the assumptions built into the model.
National Science Foundation, NIH/National Institute of General Medical Sciences

Contact: Brandie Jefferson
brandie.jefferson@wustl.edu
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 11-Dec-2020
Nature Communications
How AI could make therapeutic decision-making for breast cancer more accurate, affordable
Deep learning-enabled breast cancer technology could make breast cancer therapy decisions more accurate, affordable and accessible. For newly diagnosed breast cancer, estrogen receptor status (ERS) is a key molecular marker used for prognosis and treatment decisions. This is an expensive, time-consuming process. Here we show that machine learning can determine molecular marker status. Our approach could augment clinicians' capabilities in cancer prognosis and theragnosis by harnessing biological signals imperceptible to the human eye.
Breast Cancer Research Foundation, Salesforce, Ellison Institute for Transformative Medicine of USC

Contact: Steve Mnich
smnich@salesforce.com
248-770-5887
Salesforce

Public Release: 11-Dec-2020
Herpetologica
Carolina Sandhills Salamander: New species added to species-rich North Carolina
Already possessing more salamander species than any other state in the country with 63, North Carolina has just added one more to make it 64. The aptly named Carolina Sandhills Salamander (Eurycea arenicola) is found in association with springs, seepages and small blackwater streams of the Sandhills region of North Carolina.
National Science Foundation Research Opportunity Award

Contact: Bryan Stuart
bryan.stuart@naturalsciences.org
919-600-2422
North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences

Public Release: 10-Dec-2020
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Restorative justice preferred among the Enga in Papua New Guinea
Most large-scale populations employ a punitive judicial system. Advocates have long called for a more restorative justice system that repairs harm to victims and reintegrates wrongdoers into society. A study analyzing 10 years of court cases of the Enga of Papua New Guinea show that they overwhelmingly emphasize restorative justice, allowing both sides and community members share their story, the community assists paying compensation to the victim, and supports reintegrating the offender back into society.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lisa Potter
Lisa.potter@utah.edu
801-585-3093
University of Utah

Public Release: 10-Dec-2020
Astronomical Journal
Exoplanet around distant star resembles reputed 'Planet Nine' in our solar system
Astronomers think planets can exist in orbits far from their star, and propose a two-step process: interactions with the star or inner planets kick it out of the inner system, and then a passing star stabilizes the orbit to keep it bound. Such a scenario could explain the hypothesized "Planet Nine" in our solar system. Astronomers has now confirmed that one binary star system, HD 106906, has a planet in a bound, highly eccentric orbit.
National Science Foundation, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Contact: Robert Sanders
rlsanders@berkeley.edu
510-915-3097
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 10-Dec-2020
Advanced Intelligent Systems
Artificial Chemist 2.0: quantum dot R&D in less than an hour
A new technology, called Artificial Chemist 2.0, allows users to go from requesting a custom quantum dot to completing the relevant R&D and beginning manufacturing in less than an hour. The tech is completely autonomous, and uses artificial intelligence and automated robotic systems to perform multi-step chemical synthesis and analysis.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 10-Dec-2020
2020 IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting
Atom-thin transistor uses half the voltage of common semiconductors, boosts current density
University at Buffalo researchers report a new, two-dimensional transistor made of graphene and molybdenum disulfide that needs less voltage and can handle more current than today's semiconductors.
United States National Science Foundation, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, the New York State Center of Excellence in Materials Informatics at University at Buffalo

Contact: Cory Nealon
cmnealon@buffalo.edu
716-645-4614
University at Buffalo

Public Release: 10-Dec-2020
2020 Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2020)
Bad news for fake news: Rice research helps combat social media misinformation
Rice University researchers have discovered a more efficient way for social media companies to keep misinformation from spreading online through the use of probabilistic filters trained with artificial intelligence.
National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Office of Naval Research

Contact: Jade Boyd
jadeboyd@rice.edu
713-348-6778
Rice University

Public Release: 10-Dec-2020
Science
What caused the ice ages? Tiny ocean fossils offer key evidence
Since the discovery that atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were lower during past ice ages, the cause has been a mystery. Now, fossils of ocean algae reveal that a weakening in upwelling in the Antarctic Ocean kept more CO2 in the deep ocean during the ice ages. This brings scientists closer to a complete explanation for the glacial cycle and suggests that upwelling will strengthen under anthropogenic global warming, altering global climate and ocean ecosystems.
National Science Foundation, ExxonMobil through the Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment at Princeton University, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the German Research Foundation, the Max Planck Society

Contact: Liz Fuller-Wright
lizfw@princeton.edu
609-860-4009
Princeton University

Public Release: 10-Dec-2020
Science
JILA's electric 'knob' tunes chemical reaction rates in quantum gas
Building on their newfound ability to induce molecules in ultracold gases to interact with each other over long distances, JILA researchers have used an electric "knob" to influence molecular collisions and dramatically raise or lower chemical reaction rates.
National Institute of Standards and Technology, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Army Research Office, National Science Foundation

Contact: Laura Ost
laura.ost@comcast.net
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

Showing releases 151-175 out of 1151.

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