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Back to EurekAlert! A Service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 151-175 out of 840.

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Public Release: 11-Aug-2016
Cell Stem Cell
Directly reprogramming a cell's identity with gene editing
Researchers have used a gene editing tool called CRISPR to turn cells isolated from mouse connective tissue directly into neuronal cells. Results indicate that the newly converted neuronal cells show a more complete conversion than previous techniques, which persists after the treatment has ended. These cells could be used for modeling neurological disorders, discovering new therapeutics, developing personalized medicines and, perhaps in the future, implementing cell therapy.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Ken Kingery
Duke University

Public Release: 11-Aug-2016
Physical Review Letters
Much ado about nothing: Astronomers use empty space to study the universe
In a paper to appear in upcoming issue of Physical Review Letters, the international team of astronomers reports that they were able to achieve four times better precision in measurements of how the universe's visible matter is clustered together by studying the empty spaces in between.
Institut Lagrange de Paris, French National Research Agency, National Science Foundation

Contact: Pam Frost Gorder
Ohio State University

Public Release: 11-Aug-2016
UTA researcher wins grant to use data mining to improve depression diagnosis, treatment
Heng Huang, a professor in the Computer Science and Engineering Department, won a three-year, $500,000 National Science Foundation grant to use data mining to efficiently catalog and track depression patients' 'thought records' so that doctors and therapists can better identify patients' treatment needs.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Herb Booth
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 11-Aug-2016
Cell Chemical Biology
Disrupting mitochondrial function could improve treatment of fungal infections
By identifying new compounds that selectively block mitochondrial respiration in pathogenic fungi, Whitehead Institute scientists have identified a potential antifungal mechanism that could enable combination therapy with fluconazole, one of today's most commonly prescribed fungal infection treatments. Severe, invasive fungal infections have a mortality rate of 30-50 percent and cause an estimated 1.5 million deaths worldwide annually. Current antifungal therapies are hampered by the increasingly frequent emergence of drug resistance and negative interactions that often preclude combination use.
Swiss National Science Foundation, National Science Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Mathers Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Nicole Giese Rura
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research

Public Release: 10-Aug-2016
Study: Seawalls, coastal forests in Japan help reduce tsunami damage
Researchers who analyzed a history of tsunamis along the Pacific coast of Japan's Tohoku region have learned that seawalls higher than 5 meters reduce damage and death, while coastal forests also play an important role in protecting the public.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Emil Venere
Purdue University

Public Release: 10-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Stress bites! USF researchers study mosquito/bird interactions
When researchers from USF and colleagues investigated how the stress hormone, corticosterone, affects how birds cope with West Nile virus, they found that birds with higher levels of stress hormone were twice as likely to be bitten by mosquitoes that transmit the virus. Their studies have implications for the transmission of other viruses such Eastern Equine Encephalitis, and perhaps even Zika, both known to be carried by the kind of mosquitoes used in this study.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Anne DeLotto Baier
University of South Florida (USF Innovation)

Public Release: 10-Aug-2016
New meta-analysis shows engineered hard shorelines are a threat to ecosystems
Artificial shoreline hardening is often used to protect human structures from coastal hazards, but the practice may negatively affect coastal ecosystems.
Pew Charitable Trusts, National Science Foundation

Contact: James M. Verdier
American Institute of Biological Sciences

Public Release: 10-Aug-2016
Scientific Reports
Climate change already accelerating sea level rise, study finds
Greenhouse gases are already having an accelerating effect on sea level rise, but the impact has so far been masked by the cataclysmic 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, according to a new study led by NCAR.
NASA, US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Laura Snider
National Center for Atmospheric Research/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

Public Release: 9-Aug-2016
RIT/Xamarin collaboration to provide opportunities for deaf, hard-of-hearing students
When faculty members at Rochester Institute of Technology's National Technical Institute for the Deaf were creating a new degree program in mobile application development, they looked to cross-platform developer Xamarin Inc. for guidance and expertise. The result of this collaboration is the fall launch of a new academic program, which recently received approval by the New York State Education Department and earned a grant from the National Science Foundation of more than $820,000.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Vienna McGrain
Rochester Institute of Technology

Public Release: 9-Aug-2016
Global Change Biology
Why are New England's wild blue mussels disappearing?
The Gulf of Maine coastline, historically home to one of the richest shellfish populations in the US, is undergoing a dramatic change, with once-flourishing wild blue mussels all but disappearing, according to a study led by University of California, Irvine ecologists.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sea Grant, National Science Foundation, David & Lucile Packard Foundation, Wayne & Gladys Valley Foundation

Contact: Tom Vasich
University of California - Irvine

Public Release: 9-Aug-2016
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Slowly pulling proteins apart reveals unexpected path to stability
Researchers have taken a different approach to studying the conformations of larger proteins. By slowly pulling apart a protein called Protein S, they discovered a previously unknown stable conformation made possible by balancing charges between two domains. The results show some of the field's long-held ideas need to be revised.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ken Kingery
Duke University

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
UW engineers receive $2 million NSF EFRI grant for secure communications research
Two University of Washington professors will explore fundamentally secure communications that exploit the principles of quantum mechanics through a new four-year, $2 million Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation grant from the National Science Foundation.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jennifer Langston
University of Washington

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Stem Cells Translational Medicine
How to engineer a stronger immune system
With a trick of engineering, scientists at the Gladstone Institutes improved a potential weapon against inflammation and autoimmune disorders. Their work could one day benefit patients who suffer from inflammatory bowel disease or organ transplant rejection.
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NSF/Graduate Research Fellowship Program, NSF/Stem Cell Biomanufacturing Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship Program, and others

Contact: Megan McDevitt
Gladstone Institutes

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
UTA engineering researcher to develop tools to better analyze complex patient data
The National Science Foundation has awarded a five-year, $535,763 Faculty Early Career Development, or CAREER, grant to Junzhou Huang, an assistant professor in the Computer Science and Engineering Department, to discover a process by which image-omics data can be combined into files that are small enough that current computing technology will allow scientists to better predict how long a patient will live and how best to treat that patient.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Herb Booth
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Nature Microbiology
TSRI scientists pinpoint Ebola's weak spots
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute now have a high-resolution view of exactly how the experimental therapy ZMapp targets Ebola virus. The new study is also the first to show how an antibody in the ZMapp 'drug cocktail' targets a second Ebola virus protein, called sGP, whose vulnerable spots had previously been unknown.
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Science Foundation

Contact: Madeline McCurry-Schmidt
Scripps Research Institute

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Watch a tiny space rocket work
Moving a nanosatellite around in space takes only a tiny amount of thrust. Engineers from Michigan Technological University and the University of Maryland teamed up, put a nanoscale rocket under a microscope, and watched what happened.
NASA, National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Michigan/Air Force Center of Excellence in Electric Propulsion

Contact: Allison Mills
Michigan Technological University

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Discovery could help treatments for sickle cell disease
Researchers have found new biophysical markers that could help improve the understanding of treatments for sickle cell disease, a step toward developing better methods for treating the inherited blood disorder that affects an estimated 80,000 to 100,000 Americans each year.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Hamamatsu Corporation, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research & Technology Center, MIT SkolTech Initiative, Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research Bridge Project Initiative

Contact: Jocelyn Duffy
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids
Nothing -- and something -- give concrete strength, toughness
Random microscopic voids and portlandite particles in cement help tune the properties of concrete, the world's most common building material. Rice University researchers have analyzed how they contribute to its versatility.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, IBM Shared University Research Award, CISCO, Qlogic, Adaptive Computing

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Green Chemistry
Rice University chemical engineers explore market for pure levoglucosan
Chemical engineers from Rice University and China's Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics have made something so useful and unusual they aren't sure how much it's worth. The team is exploring commercial possibilities for manufacturing pure levoglucosan, a rare sugar compound that drugmakers and synthetic chemists typically don't consider using.
National Science Foundation, Chinese Academy of Sciences International Partnership Program for Creative Research Teams

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Nature Photonics
Making a solar energy conversion breakthrough with help from a ferroelectrics pioneer
Researchers from Philadelphia revealed a class of materials that could be better at converting sunlight into energy than those currently used in solar arrays. Their findings, which show how a ferroelectric insulator can extract power from a portion of the sunlight spectrum with conversion efficiency above its theoretical maximum (Shockley-Queisser limit), were aided by Russian physicist Vladimir M. Fridkin, a visiting professor at Drexel University, who is also one of the innovators behind the photocopier.
US Army Research Office, Office of Naval Research, US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Britt Faulstick
Drexel University

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Transmitting energy in soft materials
Soft materials are great at damping energy -- that's why rubber tires are so good at absorbing the shock of bumps and potholes. But if researchers are going to build autonomous soft systems, like soft robots, they'll need a way to transmit energy through soft materials. Now, researchers have developed a way to send mechanical signals through soft materials.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Leah Burrows
Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Researchers find brain's 'physics engine'
Whether or not they aced the subject in high school, human beings are physics masters when it comes to understanding and predicting how objects in the world will behave. Cognitive scientists have found the source of that intuition, the brain's 'physics engine.'
NIH/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH/National Eye Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jill Rosen
Johns Hopkins University

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Drought conditions slow the growth of Douglas fir trees across the West
Douglas fir trees are consistently sensitive to drought conditions that occur throughout the species' range in the United States, according to a study led by a researcher at the University of California, Davis.
National Science Foundation, US Geological Survey Global Change Research Program, US Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station, US Department of the Interior Alaska Climate Science Center

Contact: Christina Restaino
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 8-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Lake Tanganyika fisheries declining from global warming
The decrease in fishery productivity in Lake Tanganyika since the 1950s is a consequence of global warming rather than just overfishing, according to a new report from an international team led by a University of Arizona geoscientist. The lake was becoming warmer at the same time in the 1800s that the abundance of fish began declining and the lake's algae started decreasing. Large-scale commercial fishing did not begin on Lake Tanganyika until the 1950s.
National Science Foundation, Lake Tanganyika Biodiversity Project, US Geological Survey, Society of Exploration Geophysicists Foundation, Packard Foundation, Nature Conservancy

Contact: Mari N. Jensen
University of Arizona

Public Release: 5-Aug-2016
Marine Geology
Subduction zone earthquakes off Oregon, Washington more frequent than previous estimates
A new analysis suggests that massive earthquakes on northern sections of the Cascadia Subduction Zone, affecting areas of the Pacific Northwest that are more heavily populated, are somewhat more frequent than has been believed in the past. The chance of one occurring within the next 50 years is also slightly higher than previously estimated.
National Science Foundation, US Geological Survey

Contact: Chris Goldfinger
Oregon State University

Showing releases 151-175 out of 840.

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