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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 201-225 out of 883.

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Public Release: 5-Sep-2016
Nature Geoscience
Study: Earth's carbon points to planetary smashup
Research by Rice University Earth scientists suggests that virtually all of Earth's life-giving carbon could have come from a collision about 4.4 billion years ago between Earth and an embryonic planet similar to Mercury.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 5-Sep-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Warmer, wetter climate would impair California grasslands
Scientists from Rice University, Stanford University and the Carnegie Institution for Science said data from one of the world's longest-running climate-change experiments show that California grasslands will become less productive if the temperature or precipitation increases substantially above average conditions from the past 40 years.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Packard Foundation, Morgan Family Foundation, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Stanford University, Carnegie Institution for Science

Contact: Jade Boyd
Rice University

Public Release: 5-Sep-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Lizard study finds global warming data not enough to predict animal extinction
Current models used to predict the survival of species in a warming world might be off target because they ignore the spatial distribution of shade.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Clinton Colmenares
Clemson University

Public Release: 5-Sep-2016
Nature Biotechnology
Device rapidly measures growth of single cells simultaneously
A new technique invented at MIT can precisely measure the growth of many individual cells simultaneously. The advance holds promise for fast drug tests, offers new insights into growth variation across single cells within larger populations, and helps track the dynamic growth of cells to changing environmental conditions.
US Army Research Office, MIT/DFCI Bridge program, National Science Foundation, NIH/National Cancer Institute

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 5-Sep-2016
Nature Microbiology
Biochemists' discovery could lead to vaccine against 'flesh-eating' bacteria
Biochemists at the University of California San Diego have uncovered patterns in the outer protein coat of group A Streptococcus that could finally lead to a vaccine against this highly infectious bacteria -- responsible for more than 500,000 deaths a year, including toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis or 'flesh-eating disease.'
National Institutes of Health, National Biomedical Computation Resource, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kim McDonald
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 5-Sep-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Grassland tuned to present suffers in a warmer future
One of the longest-running, most comprehensive climate change experiments produced some surprises. Researchers subjected grassland ecosystems to sixteen possible future climates and measured ecosystem performance and sustainability. The study covered 17 years of plant growth, an important bellwether of ecosystem health. Plant growth varied tremendously from year to year; it peaked under conditions near the average over the last several decades. As conditions moved away from the averages, as happens with climate change, plant growth fell.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Packard Foundation, Morgan Family Foundation, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Stanford University and Carnegie Institution for Science

Contact: Chris Field
Carnegie Institution for Science

Public Release: 5-Sep-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Promising drug leads identified to combat heart disease
Using a unique computational approach to rapidly sample, in millisecond time intervals, proteins in their natural state of gyrating, bobbing, and weaving, a research team from UC San Diego and Monash University in Australia has identified promising drug leads that may selectively combat heart disease, from arrhythmias to cardiac failure.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Biomedical Computation Resource, National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia

Contact: Jan Zverina
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 2-Sep-2016
Science Advances
'Materials that compute' advances as Pitt engineers demonstrate pattern recognition
The potential to develop 'materials that compute' has taken another leap at the University of Pittsburgh's Swanson School of Engineering, where researchers for the first time have demonstrated that the material can be designed to recognize simple patterns. This responsive, hybrid material, powered by its own chemical reactions, could one day be integrated into clothing and used to monitor the human body, or developed as a skin for 'squishy' robots.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Paul Kovach
University of Pittsburgh

Public Release: 2-Sep-2016
Climate Dynamics
Early-onset spring models may indicate 'nightmare' for ag
Warm springs in the Great Lakes and Northeast regions -- which create havoc for agriculture -- may start earlier by mid-century if greenhouse gas emissions are not reduced, according to a new Cornell University study published in Climate Dynamics.
US Geological Survey, National Science Foundation, National Phenology Database at the USA National Phenology Network

Contact: Melissa Osgood
Cornell University

Public Release: 2-Sep-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Crop domestication is a balancing act
The ancestors of leaf-cutter ants swapped a hunter-gatherer lifestyle for a bucolic existence on small-scale subsistence farms. A new study at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Panama revealed that living relatives of the earliest fungus-farming ants still have not domesticated their crop, a challenge also faced by early human farmers.
Smithsonian Institution, Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship, National Science Foundation, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Danish National Research Foundation

Contact: Beth King
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Public Release: 2-Sep-2016
Pitt chemical engineer receives NSF grant to study self-assembly of large-scale particles
'Fabricating the self-assembly of larger particles had been done a handful of times before we started trying it, but we've pushed the possibilities a lot further,' said McCarthy. 'Other researchers noticed the phenomenon occurring empirically, but we are trying to formalize it. We are working with particles that are at least 100 times bigger than anything that has been done before.'
National Science Foundation

Contact: Paul Kovach
University of Pittsburgh

Public Release: 2-Sep-2016
Nature Communications
A new technique opens up advanced solar cells
Using a novel spectroscopic technique, EPFL scientists have made a much-needed breakthrough in cutting-edge photovoltaics.
Swiss National Science Foundation, University of Fribourg, NCCR- MUST, European Research Council Starting Independent Researcher Fellowship, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 1-Sep-2016
Nature Geoscience
'Tug of war' keeps scientists working on storm tracks
A new analysis published this week in Nature Geoscience by the University of Chicago's Tiffany Shaw and others finds that human-induced climate change complicates projecting the future position of storms.
David and Lucile Packard Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Steve Koppes
University of Chicago

Public Release: 1-Sep-2016
Findings about protein could open door to new class of antibiotics
Researchers have made the first-ever detailed, atomic-level images of a peroxiredoxin, which has revealed a peculiar characteristic of this protein that might form the foundation for an entirely new class of antibiotics.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Energy

Contact: Arden Perkins
Oregon State University

Public Release: 1-Sep-2016
Georgia State University and ALPAO sign agreement for adaptive optics upgrade on telescopes at CHARA
Georgia State University's Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and the French company ALPAO have signed a contract for the development of an adaptive optics upgrade for the CHARA Array, the largest optical interferometer array in the world.
National Science Foundation

Contact: LaTina Emerson
Georgia State University

Public Release: 1-Sep-2016
10th USENIX Workshop on Offensive Technologies
Researchers find vulnerabilities in cars connected to smartphones
Many of today's automobiles leave the factory with secret passengers: prototype software features that are disabled but that can be unlocked by clever drivers. Researchers found vulnerabilities in MirrorLink, a system of rules that allow vehicles to communicate with smartphones. They found that MirrorLink is relatively easy to enable, and when unlocked can allow hackers to use a linked smartphone as a stepping stone to control safety-critical components such as the vehicle's anti-lock braking system.
General Motors, National Science Foundation, Department of Homeland Security

Contact: Karl Greenberg
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Public Release: 1-Sep-2016
Crystallization plate provides clues on protein structure aboard historic space mission
A new crystallization plate, developed and tested at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, or CHESS, hitched a ride to outer space and is helping a major drugmaker learn about protein structure.
The Division of Materials Research of the National Science Foundation

Contact: Daryl Lovell
Cornell University

Public Release: 1-Sep-2016
Nature Plants
Scientists find new system in tomato's defense against bacterial speck disease
Researchers at the Boyce Thompson Institute and Virginia Tech have discovered a new receptor used by tomatoes to detect the organism that causes bacterial speck disease. The receptor, called FLS3, is present in a small number of plant species, including tomato, potato and pepper, but could be used to make other crops more disease-resistant.
National Science Foundation, United States Department of Agriculture National Initiative in Food and Agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture Binational Agriculture Development Fund, National Institutes of Health, TRIAD Foundation

Contact: Patricia Waldron
Boyce Thompson Institute

Public Release: 1-Sep-2016
Multiple resources jointly control plant diversity
It is well-established that the addition of nutrients in grassland ecosystems -- both through farming and atmospheric deposition -- reduces plant diversity. Now, an international study is shedding new light on how this loss in biodiversity is driven by more factors than previously thought. This finding has strong implications for understanding and predicting future effects of multiple global changes. Results are published in Nature, Sept. 1 issue.
Minnesota Supercomputer, University of Minnesota Institute on the Environment, National Science Foundation Research Coordination Network, Konza Prairie LTER, Yale Institute for Biospheric, Crop Production Services

Contact: Stan Harpole
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig

Public Release: 1-Sep-2016
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
When silencing phantom noises is a matter of science
New study in mice proposes the first gene that could help prevent tinnitus, that ringing in the ears inside one's head when no external sound is present. Discovered by Professor Cederroth and his team at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, this is a first step to identify the molecules that could be targeted in treatments to silence the phantom noises, and help thousands of people.
Swiss National Science Foundation, Schweizerischen Stiftung für medizinisch-biologische Stipendien, Nicholson Fund, Wenner Gren Foundation, and others

Contact: Monica Favre, Ph.D.

Public Release: 1-Sep-2016
Nature Communications
Making the switch, this time with an insulator
Colorado State University physicists have demonstrated a new approach to low-power computer memory. Publishing in Nature Communications, they've demonstrated a new way to switch magnetic moments -- or direction of magnetization -- of electrons in a thin film of a barium ferrite, which is a magnetic insulator. Until this point, scientists have only demonstrated this switching behavior in metal thin films.
US Department of Energy, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, US Army Research Office, National Science Foundation

Contact: Anne Ju Manning
Colorado State University

Public Release: 1-Sep-2016
Chemistry method expedites path to useful molecules for medicine
A collaboration of Chinese and US chemists has laid out a highly efficient method to convert abundant organic molecules into new medicines. Teams led by the Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry and the University of Wisconsin-Madison describe a way to convert carbon-hydrogen bonds into nitriles, common components of bioactive molecules used in medicinal and agricultural applications.
National Basic Research Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Shannon Stahl
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Public Release: 1-Sep-2016
Rutgers engineers use microwaves to produce high-quality graphene
Rutgers University engineers have found a simple method for producing high-quality graphene that can be used in next-generation electronic and energy devices: bake the compound in a microwave oven. The discovery is documented in a study published online today in the journal Science.
National Science Foundation, Rutgers Energy Institute, US Department of Education, Rutgers Aresty Research Assistant Program

Contact: Todd B. Bates
Rutgers University

Public Release: 31-Aug-2016
Social Science and Medicine
CU study: Feeling heavy, light, or about right? Your genes may be to blame
Do you feel overweight, about right, or too skinny? Your answer to that question may be tied to genes you inherited from your parents, especially if you are a female, according to a new study led by the University of Colorado Boulder.
NIH/Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Robbee Widow
University of Colorado at Boulder

Public Release: 31-Aug-2016
Freshening of the Southern Ocean
Over the past decades, the northward drift of sea ice surrounding Antarctica has strengthened. This not only has increased the extent of the sea ice, but also has freshened the sea water around the sea-ice edge -- with as yet indeterminate consequences for the global climate system and Antarctica's ecosystem.
ETH, European Union, Swiss National Science Foundation, Space Science Institute Bern Switzerland project #245.

Contact: Nicolas Gruber
ETH Zurich

Showing releases 201-225 out of 883.

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