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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 201-225 out of 862.

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Public Release: 2-Aug-2016
Scientific Reports
Trees on farms: The missing link in carbon accounting
While tropical forests continued to decline, a remarkable change is happening: tree cover on agricultural land has increased across the globe, capturing nearly 0.75 Gigatonnes carbon dioxide every year. A new study titled Global Tree Cover and Biomass Carbon on Agricultural Land: The contribution of agroforestry to global and national carbon budgets provides insights into the patterns of this tremendous change at global, regional and national scales.
National Key Basic Research Program of China, National Science Foundation China, CGIAR Research Programs on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry and Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security

Contact: Jianchu Xu
World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)

Public Release: 1-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Mystery solved: The case of the slipping finger
Researchers discover that ultrasonic vibrations reduce friction on flat screens by causing the fingertip to bounce on pockets of trapped air.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Pat Tremmel
Northwestern University

Public Release: 1-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Trading changes how brain processes selling decisions
Experience in trading changes how the human brain evaluates the sale of goods, muting an economic bias known as the endowment effect in which people demand a higher price to sell a good than they're willing to pay for it. The findings by University of Chicago researchers to be published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences come from a set of experiments on why traders are less susceptible to the effect.
National Science Foundation, University of Chicago, John Templeton Foundation

Contact: Mark Peters
University of Chicago

Public Release: 1-Aug-2016
Still changing after all these years
If Paul Simon were to write a song about the bacteria in Richard Lenski's long-term evolution experiment, or LTEE, it could be titled, 'Still Changing After All These Years.'
National Science Foundation

Contact: Layne Cameron
Michigan State University

Public Release: 1-Aug-2016
A new leaf: Scientists turn carbon dioxide back into fuel
In a new study from Argonne and the University of Illinois at Chicago, researchers have found a way to convert carbon dioxide into a usable energy source.
US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Jared Sagoff
DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

Public Release: 1-Aug-2016
Association for Computational Linguistics
Researchers produce first major database of non-native English
After thousands of hours of work, MIT researchers have released the first major database of fully annotated English sentences written by non-native speakers. The researchers who led the project had already shown that the grammatical quirks of non-native speakers writing in English could be a source of linguistic insight. But they hope that their dataset could also lead to applications that would improve computers' handling of spoken or written language of non-native English speakers.
National Science Foundation, MIT's Center for Brains, Minds, and Machines

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 1-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Lack of water likely caused extinction of isolated Alaska mammoths
A remnant population of woolly mammoths on a remote Alaska island was likely pushed to extinction by rising sea levels and a lack of access to fresh water, according to a newly published study.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeff Richardson
University of Alaska Fairbanks

Public Release: 1-Aug-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
St. Paul Island mammoths most accurately dated 'prehistoric' extinction ever
While the Minoan culture on Crete was just beginning, woolly mammoths were disappearing from St. Paul Island, Alaska, according to an international team of scientists who have dated this extinction to 5,600 years ago.
National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
Penn State

Public Release: 29-Jul-2016
Science Advances
Diamonds help generate new record for static pressures for study
An international team working at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory has devised a method for achieving 1 terapascal of static pressure -- vastly higher than any previously reached.
BES, National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, DOE/Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, & Biosciences

Contact: Richard Fenner
DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

Public Release: 29-Jul-2016
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology
New fossil evidence supports theory that first mass extinction engineered by early animals
Newly discovered fossil evidence from Namibia strengthens the proposition that the world's first mass extinction was caused by 'ecosystem engineers' -- newly evolved biological organisms that altered the environment so radically it drove older species to extinction.
National Science Foundation, NASA Astrobiology Institute, National Geographic Society

Contact: David F. Salisbury
Vanderbilt University

Public Release: 29-Jul-2016
Nature Materials
Triple-therapy patch delivers local treatment, prevents recurrence in colon cancer model
Investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital have developed a hydrogel patch that can adhere to tumors in a preclinical model of colon cancer, delivering a local, combination treatment as the elastic gel breaks down over time.
National Institutes of Health, Koch Institute, NIH/National Cancer Institute, NIH/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH/National Cancer Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: Haley Bridger
Brigham and Women's Hospital

Public Release: 29-Jul-2016
Journal of the Royal Society Interface
Inflammatory response to ceramic scaffolds promotes bone regeneration
Drexel University researchers have identified how inflammation, when precisely controlled, is crucial to bone repair.
Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Australian Research Council, Rebecca Cooper Medical Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Lauren Ingeno
Drexel University

Public Release: 29-Jul-2016
Journal of Biological Chemistry
Novel 'repair system' discovered in algae may yield new tools for biotechnology
The algae C. reinhardtii uses a novel system for releasing an interrupting sequence from a protein -- a technique that may be useful for protein purification.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Patricia Waldron
Boyce Thompson Institute

Public Release: 28-Jul-2016
Vortex laser offers hope for Moore's Law
Like a whirlpool, a new light-based communication tool carries data in a swift, circular motion. Described in a study published July 28, 2016, by the journal Science, the optics advancement could become a central component of next generation computers designed to handle society's growing demand for information sharing. It may also be a salve to those fretting over the predicted end of Moore's Law.
US Army Research Office, US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Cory Nealon
University at Buffalo

Public Release: 28-Jul-2016
OU physicists developing new systems for next generation solar cells
University of Oklahoma physicists are developing novel technologies with the potential to impact utility-scale energy generation, increase global energy capacity and reduce dependence on fossil fuels by producing a new generation of high efficiency solar cells. The OU team hopes to show that quantum-engineered systems can control thermal losses that restrict the performance of conventional solar cells and harness more of the sun's energy in practical 'hot' carrier solar cells.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jana Smith
University of Oklahoma

Public Release: 28-Jul-2016
Nature Geoscience
Earth's mantle appears to have a driving role in plate tectonics
Deep down below us is a tug of war moving at less than the speed of growing fingernails. Keeping your balance is not a concern, but how the movement happens has been debated among geologists.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jim Barlow
University of Oregon

Public Release: 28-Jul-2016
Communication Research
Websites with history can be just as conversational as chatting with a person
A website with search and interaction history can be just as engaging as chatting with an online human agent, or robot helper, according to Penn State researchers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Swayne
Penn State

Public Release: 28-Jul-2016
Current Biology
No dream: Electric brain stimulation during sleep can boost memory
For the first time, UNC School of Medicine scientists report using transcranial alternating current stimulation, or tACS, to target a specific kind of brain activity during sleep and strengthen memory in healthy people.
National Institutes of Health, UNC Department of Psychiatry, UNC School of Medicine, Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Mark Derewicz
University of North Carolina Health Care

Public Release: 28-Jul-2016
Nature Communications
New material could advance superconductivity
Scientists have looked for different ways to force hydrogen into a metallic state for decades. Metallic hydrogen is a holy grail for materials science because it could be used for superconductors, materials that have no resistance to the flow of electrons, increasing efficiency many times over. For the first time researchers, led by Carnegie's Viktor Struzhkin, have experimentally produced a new class of materials blending hydrogen with sodium that could alter the superconductivity landscape.
US Department of Energy, Energy Frontier Research in Extreme Environments Center, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, DARPA, NSFC

Contact: Viktor Struzhkin
Carnegie Institution for Science

Public Release: 28-Jul-2016
Breakthrough solar cell captures CO2 and sunlight, produces burnable fuel
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have engineered a potentially game-changing solar cell that cheaply and efficiently converts atmospheric carbon dioxide directly into usable hydrocarbon fuel, using only sunlight for energy.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Bill Burton
University of Illinois at Chicago

Public Release: 27-Jul-2016
Forests, species on 4 continents threatened by palm oil expansion
As palm oil production expands from Southeast Asia into the Americas and Africa, vulnerable tropical forests and species on four continents face increased risk of loss, a Duke-led study finds. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. But because forests in all 20 countries studied contain high concentrations of different mammal and bird species at risk of extinction, conservation efforts need to incorporate localized solutions tailored to each region.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Lucas
Duke University

Public Release: 27-Jul-2016
The brain's super-sensitivity to curbs
Humans rely on boundaries like walls and curbs for navigation, and Johns Hopkins University researchers have pinpointed the areas of the brain most sensitive to even the tiniest borders.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Jill Rosen
Johns Hopkins University

Public Release: 27-Jul-2016
Journal of Marriage and Family
Even thinking about marriage gets young people to straighten up
You don't have to get married to settle down and leave behind your wild ways -- you just have to expect to get married soon.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Claire Kamp Dush
Ohio State University

Public Release: 27-Jul-2016
Science Advances
Serendipitous observation may lead to more efficient solar cells and new gas sensors
While investigating perovskite crystals, University of Groningen scientists made an observation that could make perovskite solar cells more efficient. It could also lead to new sensors for oxygen and water vapor. The results were published online by the journal Science Advances on July 27.
European Research Council, Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter, National Science Foundation

Contact: Rene Fransen
University of Groningen

Public Release: 26-Jul-2016
American Naturalist
Male frogs have sex on land to keep competitors away
Researchers have assumed that natural selection drove frogs to take the evolutionary step to reproduce on land as a way for parents to avoid aquatic predators who feed on the eggs and tadpoles. A new study by a team including Cornell University frog biologists shows for the first time that some frogs hide eggs on land to reduce competition from other males who also want to fertilize those eggs.
National Science Foundation, São Paulo Research Foundation, University of California

Contact: Melissa Osgood
Cornell University

Showing releases 201-225 out of 862.

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