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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 201-225 out of 1139.

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Public Release: 19-Oct-2017
Renewable resource: To produce vital lipoic acid, sulfur is used, then replenished
New research shows how a protein is consumed, then reconstituted, during the production of a compound required for converting energy from food into a form that can be used by our cells. The results could help scientists to understand why humans with a fatal condition -- defects in an iron-sulfur carrier gene -- have deficiencies in this lipoic acid compound.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Barbara K. Kennedy
Penn State

Public Release: 19-Oct-2017
Discovery lights path for Alzheimer's research
A metallic probe invented at Rice University that lights up when it binds to a misfolded amyloid beta peptide has identified a binding site that could facilitate better drugs to treat Alzheimer's disease. When the probe is illuminated, it catalyzes oxidation of the protein in a way that might keep it from aggregating in the brains of patients.
Welch Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 19-Oct-2017
SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics
Mathematically modeling HIV drug pharmacodynamics
Complete elimination of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) presents a challenge due to latent viral reservoirs within the body that can help re-establish infection. In a paper publishing this week in the SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics, researchers propose a mathematical model that investigates the effects of drug parameters and dosing schedules on HIV latent reservoirs and viral load dynamics.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Karthika Cohen
Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

Public Release: 18-Oct-2017
New study reveals breast cancer cells recycle their own ammonia waste as fuel
Breast cancer cells recycle ammonia, a waste byproduct of cell metabolism, and use it as a source of nitrogen to fuel tumor growth, report scientists from Harvard Medical School. The insights shed light on the biological role of ammonia in cancer and may inform the design of new therapeutic strategies to slow tumor growth.
Ludwig Center at Harvard, Glenn Foundation for Medical Research, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Jiang
Harvard Medical School

Public Release: 18-Oct-2017
WPI researchers developing autonomous snake-like robots to support search-and-rescue teams
A team of researchers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has received a three-year, $400,000 award from the National Science Foundation to create autonomous snake-like robots that can navigate more naturally and easily through the rubble, confined spaces, and rough terrain left in the aftermath of a disaster and send images and information to search-and-rescue teams. The goal is to give the robots with the autonomy to navigate through the environment without close supervision.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andy Baron
Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Public Release: 18-Oct-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
UCI scientists see order in complex patterns of river deltas
River deltas, with their intricate networks of waterways, coastal barrier islands, wetlands and estuaries, often appear to have been formed by random processes, but scientists at the University of California, Irvine and other institutions see order in the apparent chaos.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brian Bell
University of California - Irvine

Public Release: 18-Oct-2017
Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods
Researchers from Caltech and the University of Southern California (USC) report the first application of quantum computing to a physics problem.
US Department of Energy, Research Technology, Computational HEP, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, National Science Foundation, and others

Contact: Whitney Clavin
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 18-Oct-2017
Journal of Experimental Biology
A mosquito's secret weapon: a light touch and strong wings
How do mosquitoes land and take off without our noticing? Using high-speed video cameras, a team from UC Berkeley and Wageningen University have found part of the answer: mosquitoes' long legs allow them to slowly and gently push off, but their wings provide the majority of the lift, even when fully laden with a blood meal. For comparison, mosquitoes push off with forces much less than those of an escaping fruit fly.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 18-Oct-2017
ACM's Machinery's Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society
For $1,000, anyone can purchase online ads to track your location and app use
New University of Washington research finds that for a budget of roughly $1,000, it is possible for someone to track your location and app use by purchasing and targeting mobile ads. The team hopes to raise industry awareness about the potential privacy threat.
National Science Foundation, Tech Policy Lab, Short-Dooley Professorship

Contact: Jennifer Langston
University of Washington

Public Release: 18-Oct-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Nice ice, maybe: Study finds water-repelling surfaces ease ice removal
A new study has discovered that ice grows differently on water-absorbent vs. water-repellent surfaces. The research suggests that applying water-repellent coatings to windshields before winter storms -- or engineering surfaces that inherently repel water -- could enable a strong breeze to handle the burden of ice removal.
National Science Foundation, National Science Foundation of China

Contact: Xiao Cheng Zeng
University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Public Release: 18-Oct-2017
Science Advances
Research demonstrates method to alter coherence of light
In a finding that could have broad applications in optical devices, Brown University researchers have shown that they can transform incoherent light to almost fully coherent and vice versa.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Stacey
Brown University

Public Release: 18-Oct-2017
Science Advances
New analysis suggests that preserving rare species is vital to tropical forests
The world's tropical forests are in 'a critical state' in which the extinction of rare tree species could be a tipping point, according to an international team of scientists who have developed an analytical method to map their biodiversity.
National Science Foundation, Conservation International, Missouri Botanical Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Wildlife Conservation Society

Contact: Jim Barlow
University of Oregon

Public Release: 18-Oct-2017
Nature or nurture? Innate social behaviors in the mouse brain
The brain circuitry that controls innate, or instinctive, behaviors such as mating and fighting was thought to be genetically hardwired. Not so, neuroscientists now say.
National Institutes of Health, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Ellison Medical Foundation, Simons Foundation, Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation, Helen Hay Whitney Foundation, National Science Foundation, L'Oréal USA For Women in Science

Contact: Lori Dajose
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 18-Oct-2017
Journal of Experimental Biology
How well-fed mosquitoes outwit victims at take-off
Well fed mosquitoes need to make a stealthy get away to avoid attracting the attention of the victim upon which they have just gorged, and now an international team of scientists have shown that mosquitoes take advantage of their long legs and a wing assisted launch to evade detection.
Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek), National Science Foundation, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences

Contact: Kathryn Knight
The Company of Biologists

Public Release: 17-Oct-2017
Nature Photonics
Bridging the terahertz gap
Harvard researchers are exploring the possibility of using an infrared frequency comb to generate elusive terahertz frequencies. These frequencies -- which lie in the electromagnetic spectrum between radio waves and infrared light -- have long promised to transform communications and sensing but are very challenging to source. By harnessing a recently discovered laser state, SEAS researchers have discovered an infrared frequency comb in a quantum cascade laser that offers a new way to generate terahertz frequencies.
DARPA SCOUT, National Science Foundation

Contact: Leah Burrows
Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Public Release: 17-Oct-2017
Astrophysical Journal
Colliding neutron stars seen by gravity waves and optical telescopes
For the first time, astronomers have observed a celestial event through both conventional telescopes and gravitational waves. The collision of two super-dense neutron stars just 120 million light-years from Earth was captured by both gravity wave observatories (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Observatory, LIGO in the US, and Virgo in Italy) and telescopes including the DLT40 survey based in Chile.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andy Fell
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 17-Oct-2017
Proceedings of the Royal Society B
Live fast die young: Updating signal detection theory
Signal Detection Theory holds that in a predator-prey relationship, prey animals will show more wariness and be more prone to flee as predators become more common. New work from UC Davis shows that in a more realistic model, animals may become less wary as the risks of predation increase. The work has implications in a wide range of fields.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andy Fell
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 17-Oct-2017
Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Flexible 'skin' can help robots, prosthetics perform everyday tasks by sensing shear force
UW and UCLA engineers have developed a flexible sensor 'skin' that can be stretched over any part of a robot's body or prosthetic to accurately convey information about shear forces and vibration, which are critical to tasks ranging from cooking an egg to dismantling a bomb.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jennifer Langston
University of Washington

Public Release: 17-Oct-2017
International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, MobiCom 2017
Wearables to boost security of voice-based log-in
A security-token necklace, ear buds or eyeglasses developed at the University of Michigan could eliminate vulnerabilities in voice authentication -- the practice of logging in to a device or service with your voice alone.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Nicole Moore
University of Michigan

Public Release: 17-Oct-2017
Nature Methods
Assessment shows metagenomics software has much room for improvement
A recent critical assessment of software tools represents a key step toward taming the 'Wild West' nature of the burgeoning field of metagenomics.
UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, Department of Energy, Australian Research Council, European Research Council, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore, Lundbeck Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: David Koslicki
Oregon State University

Public Release: 17-Oct-2017
PNAS, Early Edition
Matchmaking with consequences
Myc proteins play an important role when cells become cancerous. Researchers from the University of Würzburg have studied just how they do this. They might thus open up ways to develop new therapies.
Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Peter Gallant
University of Würzburg

Public Release: 17-Oct-2017
Psychological Science
How we determine who's to blame
Using eye-tracking technology, MIT cognitive scientists have obtained the first direct evidence that people use a process called counterfactual simulation to imagine how a situation could have played out differently to assign responsibility for an outcome.
National Science Foundation, MIT's Center for Brains, Minds and Machines, Office of Naval Research

Contact: Sarah McDonnell
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 17-Oct-2017
Scientific Reports
Keratin, proteins from 54-million-year-old sea turtle show survival trait evolution
Researchers Japan have retrieved original pigment, beta-keratin and muscle proteins from a 54-million-year-old sea turtle hatchling. The work adds to the growing body of evidence supporting persistence of original molecules over millions of years and also provides direct evidence that a pigment-based survival trait common to modern sea turtles evolved at least 54 million years ago.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tracey Peake
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 16-Oct-2017
UTA researchers earn grant to help Texas city prioritize post-Harvey debris cleanup
Researchers at The University of Texas at Arlington have been awarded a $34,000 National Science Foundation RAPID grant to use unmanned aerial vehicles to create highly accurate 3-D and profile maps of the storm debris so the city knows the full extent of what it needs to remove.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Herb Booth
University of Texas at Arlington

Public Release: 16-Oct-2017
Physical Review Fluids
Spinning strands hint at folding dynamics
A Rice University lab creates flexible strings of magnetized beads to model how natural and synthetic strands bend and fold in dynamic conditions. The work could enhance knowledge of how proteins and DNA fold in biological systems and how synthetic fibers interact in fluids.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Showing releases 201-225 out of 1139.

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