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Back to EurekAlert! A Service of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
  News From the National Science Foundation
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Showing releases 26-50 out of 898.

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Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
Nature Microbiology
Deep down fracking wells, microbial communities thrive
Microbes have a remarkable ability to adapt to the extreme conditions in fracking wells. New finding help scientists understand what is happening inside fracking wells and could offer insight into processes such as corrosion and methane production.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Contact: Tom Rickey
DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
Arousal exerts an unconscious influence on what we see
A new study from UCL researchers finds that subtle, unconscious increases in arousal -- indicated by a faster heartbeat and dilated pupils -- shape our confidence for visual experiences.
Wellcome Trust, European Research Council and Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Chris Lane
University College London

Public Release: 25-Oct-2016
Nature Communications
Enormous dome in central Andes driven by huge magma body beneath it
A new analysis of the topography of the central Andes shows the uplifting of the Earth's second highest continental plateau was driven in part by a huge zone of melted rock in the crust, known as a magma body. The Altiplano-Puna plateau is a high, dry region in the central Andes, with vast plains punctuated by spectacular volcanoes. Researchers used remote sensing data and topographic modeling techniques to reveal an enormous dome in the plateau.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Tim Stephens
University of California - Santa Cruz

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Cytomegalovirus infection relies on human RNA-binding protein
Viruses hijack the molecular machinery in human cells to survive and replicate, often damaging those host cells in the process. Researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine discovered that, for cytomegalovirus (CMV), this process relies on a human protein called CPEB1. The study provides a potential new target for the development of CMV therapies.
National Institutes of Health, California Institute of Regenerative Medicine, National Science Foundation, Myotonic Dystrophy Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

Contact: Heather Buschman
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Atom-by-atom growth chart for shells helps decode past climate
For the first time scientists can see how the shells of tiny marine organisms grow atom-by-atom, a new study reports. The advance provides new insights into the mechanisms of biomineralization and will improve our understanding of environmental change in Earth's past.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Andy Fell
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Royal Society Open Science
Researchers find zebrafish want to hang out with moving 3-D robotic models of themselves
Zebrafish engage more with 3-D moving robotic models of themselves than with other stimuli. A team of NYU Tandon researchers devised a controllable, customizable robotic platform to more accurately study freshwater fish behavior. Zebrafish are highly versatile and increasingly taking the place of more complex animals in behavioral studies. Understanding their social behavior may help researchers explore mechanisms behind human disorders like anxiety, addiction, autism, and schizophrenia.
National Science Foundation, Mitsui USA Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Trends in Ecology and Evolution
Predicting climate impacts on ecosystems will require scientists to widen the lens
In a new paper, two Yale scholars make the case that overly simplistic studies on the climate impacts on ecosystems avoid the inherent complexity and interconnectedness of natural systems. They propose a greater emphasis on scholarship that explores how climate change will affect interactions between all food web components.
Yale Climate and Energy Institute, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Dennehy
Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Parasitic plants may form weapons out of genes stolen from hosts
Sneaky parasitic weeds may be able to steal genes from the plants they are attacking and then use those genes against the host plant, according to a team of scientists.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Agriculture

Contact: Matt Swayne
Penn State

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Semi-volatile organic compounds diffuse between atmospheric particles
Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University's Neil M. Donahue have shown that semi-volatile organic compounds can readily diffuse into the billions of tiny atmospheric particles that inhabit the air, easily moving among them. The findings, published in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), provide greater understanding into how organic particles behave in the atmosphere and impact climate and health.
National Science Foundation, Wallace Research Foundation, US EPA STAR Program, Schlumberger Foundation/Faculty for the Future Fellowship

Contact: Jocelyn Duffy
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting
Study: People can tell if they are voting on a secure system
'Rigged' election rhetoric in the headlines aims to cast doubt about the security of the American voting system; however, people have a sense of whether a voting system is secure, according to new research from Rice University.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientists trace plant hormone pathway back 450 million years
Purdue scientists got a glimpse into more than 450 million years of evolution by tracing the function of a hormone pathway that has been passed along and co-opted by new species since the first plants came onto land.
National Science Foundation, Australian Research Council, King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology of King Saud University, Deutsche Forshungsgemeinshaft

Contact: Jody Banks
Purdue University

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Nature Geoscience
What the ancient CO2 record may mean for future climate change
A team of researchers led by UC Davis reconstructed the ancient atmospheric carbon dioxide record from 330 to 260 million years ago, when ice last covered Earth's polar regions and large rainforests expanded throughout the tropics, leaving as their signature the world's coal resources. The team's deep-time reconstruction reveals previously unknown fluctuations of atmospheric carbon dioxide at levels projected for the 21st century and highlights the potential impact the loss of tropical forests can have on climate.
National Science Foundation, European Research Council

Contact: Kat Kerlin
University of California - Davis

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Nature Materials
3-D-printed organ-on-a-chip with integrated sensors
Researchers have made the first entirely 3-D-printed organ-on-a-chip with integrated sensing. Built by a fully automated, digital manufacturing process, the 3-D-printed heart-on-a-chip can be quickly fabricated and customized. This new approach to manufacturing may one day allow researchers to rapidly design organs-on-chips, also known as microphysiological systems, that match the properties of a specific disease or even an individual patient's cells.
National Science Foundation, NIH/National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, US Army Research Laboratory, Harvard University Materials Research Science and Engineering

Contact: Leah Burrows
Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Public Release: 24-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Nanometer-scale image reveals new details about formation of a marine shell
An atom-by-atom picture of a marine shell's first formation shows that magnesium and sodium ions may control how shells grow under different environmental conditions.
National Science Foundation, Department of Energy

Contact: Hannah Hickey
University of Washington

Public Release: 21-Oct-2016
Unusual quantum liquid on crystal surface could inspire future electronics
Researchers at Princeton University and the University of Texas-Austin found that electrons, when kept at very low temperatures where their quantum behaviors emerge, can spontaneously begin to travel in elliptical paths on the surface of a crystal of bismuth. The strange elliptical orbits correspond to the electrons being in different "valleys" of possible states created by the crystal. The findings could inform further research on a forward-looking strategy for electronics called "valleytronics."
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, US Department of Energy, National Science Foundation through the Princeton Center for Complex Materials, US Army Research Office, Eric and Wendy Schmidt Transformative Technology Fund

Contact: Catherine Zandonella
Princeton University

Public Release: 21-Oct-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Understanding bacteria's slimy fortresses
Engineers and biologists have for the first time revealed the mechanics of how bacteria build up slimy masses called biofilms, cell by cell. When encased in biofilms in the human body, bacteria are a thousand times less susceptible to antibiotics, making certain infections, such as pneumonia, difficult to treat and potentially lethal.
National Science Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Institutes of Health

Contact: John Sullivan
Princeton University, Engineering School

Public Release: 21-Oct-2016
Nature Communications
A new class of materials could realize quantum computers
Scientists at EPFL and PSI have discovered a new class of materials that can prove ideal for the implementation of spintronics.
Swiss National Science Foundation Project, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Austrian Science Funds, CENTEM PLUS, European Community's Seventh Framework Program

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
International team unveils first atomic-level image of the human 'marijuana receptor'
In a discovery that advances the understanding of how marijuana works in the human body, an international group of scientists, including those from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), have for the first time created a three-dimensional atomic-level image of the molecular structure activated by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active chemical in marijuana.
Ministry of Science and Technology of China, National Nature Science Foundation of China, National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Shanghai Municipal Government, ShanghaiTech University, GPCR Consortium

Contact: Eric Sauter
Scripps Research Institute

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
Scientific Reports
'Mean girl' meerkats can make twice as much testosterone as males
Testosterone. It's often lauded as the hormone that makes males bigger, bolder, stronger. Now researchers have identified one group of animals, the meerkats of Africa, in which females can produce even more testosterone than males -- the only animals known to have such a pattern. Female meerkats with high levels of testosterone-related hormones are more likely to be leaders, but they also pay a price for being macho, according to two new studies.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robin Ann Smith
Duke University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
New evolutionary finding: Species take different genetic paths to reach same trait
By studying Andean bird species adapted to high altitudes, University of Nebraska-Lincoln biologist Jay Storz and colleagues found that even if natural selection produces similar beneficial traits in different species, evolutionary changes at the molecular level are idiosyncratic and less predictable.
National Science Foundation, NIH/National Health Lung and Blood Institute, Danish Council for Independent Research

Contact: Jay Storz, professor of biological sciences
University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
Designing the future internet
This century, our world will be flooded with hundreds of billions of smartphones, gadgets, sensors and other smart objects connected to the internet. At Rutgers University, Dipankar 'Ray' Raychaudhuri is at the forefront of efforts to redesign the internet to handle the enormous increase in traffic.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Todd B. Bates
Rutgers University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
Women, diversity in STEM focus of ADVANCE grant to Clemson
With $3.4 M NSF grant, Clemson will increase women and underrepresented minorities in STEM, and increase diversity and inclusion across campus.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Clinton Colmenares
Clemson University

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
Turning biofuel waste into wealth in a single step
Lignin is a bulky chain of molecules found in wood and is usually discarded during biofuel production. But in a new method by EPFL chemists, the simple addition of formaldehyde could turn it into the main focus.
Swiss Competence Center for Energy Research (Biomass for a Swiss Energy Future), Swiss National Science Foundation, EPFL, US Department of Energy

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
ALS study reveals role of RNA-binding proteins
Although only 10 percent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases are hereditary, a significant number of them are caused by mutations that affect proteins that bind RNA, a type of genetic material. University of California San Diego School of Medicine researchers studied several ALS cases with a mutation in a RNA-binding protein known as hnRNP A2/B1. In the study, they describe how damage to this protein contributes to ALS by scrambling crucial cellular messaging systems.
National Institutes of Health, CIRM, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships

Contact: Heather Buschman
University of California - San Diego

Public Release: 20-Oct-2016
Teachers and students pair up to widen the STEM pipeline
NYU Tandon is issuing a call for NYC high schools to join a novel summer program that will bring together teams of teachers and their students who will learn robotics then take their knowledge back to their schools to establish elective courses in the STEM subjects. NSF's ITEST program recently awarded more than $1 million to the three-year project, which will combine robotics and entrepreneurial education to improve teacher practices and student outcomes.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kathleen Hamilton
NYU Tandon School of Engineering

Showing releases 26-50 out of 898.

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