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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

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Showing releases 251-275 out of 1140.

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Public Release: 30-Nov-2020
Nature Communications
Cortex over reflex: Study traces circuits where executive control overcomes instinct
Via circuit tracing and behavioral manipulation using optogenetics, a new study shows that a region of the prefrontal cortex connects to the superior colliculus to override the SC's reflexive action when executive control is necessary.
National Eye Institute, National Institute of Mental Health, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, National Science Foundation, Simons Foundation, JPB Foundation

Contact: David Orenstein
davidjo@mit.edu
617-324-2079
Picower Institute at MIT

Public Release: 30-Nov-2020
Journal of Neuroscience
Infant language exposure shapes brain circuitry
The type and quantity of an infant's language exposure relates to their brain function, according to new research published in JNeurosci.
the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Jacobs Foundation

Contact: Calli McMurray
media@sfn.org
202-962-4000
Society for Neuroscience

Public Release: 27-Nov-2020
European Heart Journal
Airplane noise at night can trigger cardiovascular death
For the first time, a study demonstrated that loud night-time noise from airplanes can trigger a cardiovascular death within two hours. Researchers from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) and partners compared mortality data with acute night-time noise exposure around Zurich airport between 2000 and 2015. The results of the study have been published today in the renowned European Heart Journal.
Swiss National Science Foundation

Contact: Sabina Beatrice-Matter
sabina.beatrice@swisstph.ch
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute

Public Release: 26-Nov-2020
Nature
Sun model completely confirmed for the first time
The Borexino experiment research team has succeeded in detecting neutrinos from the sun's second fusion process, the Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen cycle (CNO cycle) for the first time. This means that all of the theoretical predictions on how energy is generated within the sun have now also been experimentally verified. The findings are the result of years of efforts devoted to bringing the background sources in the energy range of the CNO neutrinos under control.
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Italy), National Science Foundation (NSF) (USA), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft (HGF) (Germany), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR)

Contact: Dr. Andreas Battenberg
battenberg@zv.tum.de
49-892-891-0510
Technical University of Munich (TUM)

Public Release: 25-Nov-2020
Nature Plants
Princeton scientists solve the mystery behind an enigmatic organelle, the pyrenoid
Princeton researchers Shan He, Martin Jonikas, and colleagues have discovered how Rubisco holoenzymes assemble to form the fluid-like matrix of the algal pyrenoid, an organelle that mediates the incorporation of carbon dioxide into sugars. The study detailing the group's findings was published November 23, 2020 in the journal Nature Plants.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Simons Foundation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Ministry of Education of Singapore, UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Leverhulme Trus

Contact: Caitlin Sedwick
lizfw@princeton.edu
609-860-4009
Princeton University

Public Release: 25-Nov-2020
Science Advances
Princeton scientists discover a motif that guides assembly of the algal pyrenoid
Princeton University researchers have discovered that assembly of the algal pyrenoid, a structure that mediates the incorporation of carbon dioxide into sugars, is guided by the presence of a particular protein sequence, or motif. The study describing this breakthrough, by researchers Moritz Meyer, Martin Jonikas, and colleagues, appeared November 11, 2020 in the open-access journal Science Advances.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Simons Foundation, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council

Contact: Caitlin Sedwick
lizfw@princeton.edu
609-860-4009
Princeton University

Public Release: 25-Nov-2020
Nature
Neutrinos yield first experimental evidence of catalyzed fusion dominant in many stars
An international team of about 100 scientists of the Borexino Collaboration, including particle physicist Andrea Pocar at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, report in Nature this week detection of neutrinos from the sun, directly revealing for the first time that the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) fusion-cycle is at work in our sun.
National Science Foundation, Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Germany, Russia, Poland

Contact: Janet Lathrop
jlathrop@umass.edu
University of Massachusetts Amherst

Public Release: 25-Nov-2020
Nature
Community conservation reserves protect fish diversity in tropical rivers
A collaboration between researchers from Cornell University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison has found that small, community-based reserves in Thailand's Salween River Basin are serving as critical refuges for fish diversity in a region whose subsistence fisheries have suffered from decades of overharvesting.
National Science Foundation, Mustard Seed Foundation, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Cornell Atkinson Center for Sustainability

Contact: Jeff Tyson
jeff.tyson@cornell.edu
607-793-5769
Cornell University

Public Release: 25-Nov-2020
Nature
Global collaboration is unlocking wheat's genetic potential
In a paper published Wednesday, Nov. 25, 2020, in Nature, Kansas State University researchers, in collaboration with the international 10+ Genome Project led by the University of Saskatchewan, have announced the complete genome sequencing of 15 wheat varieties representing breeding programs around the world -- an invaluable resource to improve global wheat production.
National Science Foundation, Kansas Wheat, United States Agency for International Development, National Institute of Food and Agriculture

Contact: Jesse Poland
jpoland@k-state.edu
Kansas State University

Public Release: 25-Nov-2020
Nature Communications
SARS-CoV-2 mutations do not appear to increase transmissibility
None of the mutations currently documented in the SARS-CoV-2 virus appear to increase its transmissibility in humans, according to a study led by UCL researchers, published in Nature Communications.
Newton Fund UK-China NSFC initiative, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, National Institute for Health Research

Contact: Chris Lane
chris.lane@ucl.ac.uk
44-207-679-9222
University College London

Public Release: 25-Nov-2020
PLOS ONE
Sniffing your way to the gym
On a near daily basis, the internet spews out numerous tips and tricks for exercise motivation. Now we can add smell to the long and growing list. A research team led by a scientist at the University of California, Riverside, has found olfaction--or smell--may play an important role in motivating mammals to engage in voluntary exercise. Performed in lab mice, the study may open up new areas of research and have relevance for humans.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Iqbal Pittalwala
iqbal@ucr.edu
951-827-6050
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 25-Nov-2020
Nature
Landmark study generates first genomic atlas for global wheat improvement
In a landmark discovery for global wheat production, a University of Saskatchewan-led international team has sequenced the genomes for 15 wheat varieties representing breeding programs around the world, enabling scientists and breeders to much more quickly identify influential genes for improved yield, pest resistance and other important crop traits.
Western Grains Research Foundation, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. National Science Foundation, Japan's National BioResource Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Australia's Grain Research and Development Commission, Government of Saskatche

Contact: Victoria Dinh
victoria.dinh@usask.ca
306-966-5487
University of Saskatchewan

Public Release: 25-Nov-2020
Science Advances
Offshore submarine freshwater discovery raises hopes for islands worldwide
Twice as much freshwater is stored offshore of Hawai'i Island than previously thought, revealed a University of Hawai'i study with important implications for volcanic islands around the world. An extensive reservoir of freshwater within the submarine southern flank of the Hualālai aquifer was mapped by researchers with Hawai'i EPSCoR 'Ike Wai project, showing a way in which substantial volumes of freshwater are transported from onshore to offshore submarine aquifers along the coast of Hawai'i Island.
National Science Foundation EPSCoR Program Award

Contact: Kelli Abe Trifonovitch
kellit2@hawaii.edu
808-228-8108
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 25-Nov-2020
Journal of Ecology
In fire-prone West, plants need their pollinators -- and vice versa
A new study grounded in the northern Rockies explores the role of wildfire in the finely tuned dance between plants and their pollinators. Previous studies have looked at how fire affects plants, or how fire affects animals. But what is largely understudied is the question of how fire affects both, and about how linkages within those ecological networks might respond to fire disturbance. The findings are particularly significant in light of recent reports about the rapid and widespread decline of insects globally.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Talia Ogliore
talia.ogliore@wustl.edu
314-935-2919
Washington University in St. Louis

Public Release: 25-Nov-2020
Nature
Bird with tall, sickle-shaped beak reveals hidden diversity during the age of dinosaurs
A new bird fossil helps scientists better understand convergent evolution of complex anatomy and provides new insights into the evolution of face and beak shape in a forerunner of modern birds.
National Science Foundation, the National Geographic Society, Ohio University Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine,Ohio University

Contact: Jim Sabin
sabin@ohio.edu
740-593-0858
Ohio University

Public Release: 25-Nov-2020
Joule
Stanford scientists invent ultrafast way to manufacture perovskite solar modules
High-speed manufacturing could advance the commercialization of perovskite modules, a green alternative to conventional solar panels made of silicon.
US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, National Science Foundation's Graduate Research Fellowships Program

Contact: Mark Golden
mark.golden@stanford.edu
650-724-1639
Stanford University

Public Release: 24-Nov-2020
Scientific Reports
Simple new testing method aims to improve time-release drugs
UC Riverside engineers filled a glass tube bent like a tuning fork, kept vibrating by a circuit at its resonance frequency, with simulated stomach and intestine contents and passed an over-the-counter time-release drug granule through the tube. They observed a brief change in the frequency. When plotted, they could compare the peaks of resonance frequency against the time to learn the buoyant mass of the drug granule at that moment.
National Science Foundation Division of Biological Infrastructure; National Science Foundation Division of Computing and Communication Foundation

Contact: Holly Ober
holly.ober@ucr.edu
951-827-5893
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 24-Nov-2020
Scientific Reports
To push or to pull? How many-limbed marine organisms swim
Couinter-intuitively, small marine animals don't use their limbs or propulsors to push themselves through the water while swimming. Instead, their appendages create negative pressure behind them that pulls the animal through the water, scientists from the Marine Biological Laboratory report.
National Science Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Roger Williams Foundation to Promote Scholarship and Teaching

Contact: Emily Greenhalgh
egreenhalgh@mbl.edu
508-289-7119
Marine Biological Laboratory

Public Release: 24-Nov-2020
Worm-like, soil-swimming robots to explore crop underworld
A Cornell University project will develop worm-like, soil-swimming robots to sense and record soil properties, water, the soil microbiome and how roots grow.
National Science Foundation, National Science Foundation National Robotics Initiative

Contact: Lindsey Hadlock
lmh267@cornell.edu
607-269-6911
Cornell University

Public Release: 24-Nov-2020
NSF awards ou faculty member $2 million research and innovation grant
Not all plastics are created equally -- from milk jugs and soda bottles, which are readily recyclable, to multi-layered packaging that increases shelf life and requires less material but is less recyclable -- the challenge is for researchers to design a process that allows more of the plastics we use in our everyday lives to end up in our recycle bins rather than the local landfill.
National Science Foundation Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation

Contact: Karen Kelly
kkelly@ou.edu
405-408-2946
University of Oklahoma

Public Release: 24-Nov-2020
Royal Society of Chemistry Advances
Exploring blended materials along compositional gradients
A new platform could accelerate the development of blended materials with desired properties.
DOE Office of Science, National Science Foundation

Contact: Ariana Manglaviti
amanglaviti@bnl.gov
631-344-2347
DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory

Public Release: 24-Nov-2020
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Blast from the past
An international team of astronomers using Gemini North's GNIRS instrument have discovered that CK Vulpeculae, first seen as a bright new star in 1670, is approximately five times farther away than previously thought. This makes the 1670 explosion of CK Vulpeculae much more energetic than previously estimated and puts it into a mysterious class of objects that are too bright to be members of the well-understood type of explosions known as novae, but too faint to be supernovae.
NSF, NRC-Canada, ANID-Chile, MCTIC-Brazil, MINCyT-Argentina, and KASI-Republic of Korea

Contact: Amanda Kocz
amanda.kocz@noirlab.edu
626-524-5884
Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA)

Public Release: 24-Nov-2020
NSF's National Solar observatory predicts a large sunspot for Thanksgiving
On November 18 scientists from the US National Science Foundation's National Solar Observatory predicted the arrival of a large sunspot just in time for Thanksgiving. Using a special technique called helioseismology, the team has been "listening" to changing sound waves from the Sun's interior which beckon the arrival of a large sunspot.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Claire Raftery
claire@nso.edu
303-735-9044
Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA)

Public Release: 24-Nov-2020
Scientific Reports
Restoration of degraded grasslands can benefit climate change mitigation and key ecosystem services
New research has demonstrated how, in contrast to encroachment by the invasive alien tree species Prosopis julifora (known as `Mathenge` -in Kenya or `Promi` in Baringo), restoration of grasslands in tropical semi-arid regions can both mitigate the impacts of climate change and restore key benefits usually provided by healthy grasslands for pastoralists and agro-pastoralist communities.
Swiss National Science Foundation, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation,Swiss Programme for Research on Global Issues for Development

Contact: Wayne Coles
w.coles@cabi.org
0044-075-394-24817
CABI

Public Release: 24-Nov-2020
eLife
Historical bias overlooks genes related to COVID-19
A historical bias -- which has long dictated which human genes are studied -- is now affecting how biomedical researchers study COVID-19, causing many virus-related genes to go largely unexplored.
SCRIPT Systems Biology Center, National Science Foundation, Northwestern University Quantitative Biology Center, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Institute of Health

Contact: Amanda Morris
amandamo@northwestern.edu
217-417-4846
Northwestern University

Showing releases 251-275 out of 1140.

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