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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 276-300 out of 1151.

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Public Release: 23-Nov-2020
Nature Communications
Cascading events led to 2018 Kīlauea volcanic eruption, providing clues for forecasting
The 2018 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano was one of the largest volcanic events in Hawai'i in 200 years. This eruption was triggered by a relatively small and rapid change at the volcano after a decade-long build-up of pressure in the upper parts of the volcano, according to a recent study published in Nature Communications by earth scientists from the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa and U.S. Geological Survey.
US Geological Survey Volcano Science Center, the Federal disaster supplemental research program, National Science Foundation.

Contact: Marcie Grabowski
mworkman@hawaii.edu
808-956-3151
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 23-Nov-2020
Quaternary Science Reviews
Ancient people relied on coastal environments to survive the Last Glacial Maximum
Excavations on the south coast of South Africa have uncovered evidence of human occupations from the end of the last ice age, approximately 35,000 years ago, through the complex transition to the modern time, known as the Holocene and adaptions that were key to our species ability to survive wide climate and environmental fluctuations.
Department of Science and Innovation-National Research Foundation (South Africa), National Science Foundation (US), John Templeton Foundation, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Research Centre/Cluster of Excellence.

Contact: Erich Fisher
Erich.Fisher@asu.edu
352-256-8093
Arizona State University

Public Release: 23-Nov-2020
Nano Letters
Direct visualization of quantum dots reveals shape of quantum wave function
Trapping and controlling electrons in bilayer graphene quantum dots yields a promising platform for quantum information technologies. Researchers at UC Santa Cruz have now achieved the first direct visualization of quantum dots in bilayer graphene, revealing the shape of the quantum wave function of the trapped electrons.
National Science Foundation, Army Research Office

Contact: Tim Stephens
stephens@ucsc.edu
831-459-4352
University of California - Santa Cruz

Public Release: 23-Nov-2020
Communications Physics
UCF researcher zeroes in on critical point for improving superconductors
Developing a practical "room temperature" superconductor is a feat science has yet to achieve. However a UCF researcher and his colleagues are working to move this goal closer to realization by taking a closer look at what is happening in "strange" metals. The research was published recently in the journal Communications Physics - Nature.
National Science Foundation Division of MaterialsResearch, Gordonand Betty Moore Foundation's EPiQS Initiative

Contact: Robert H Wells
robert.wells@ucf.edu
University of Central Florida

Public Release: 23-Nov-2020
Ecological Applications
Scientists organize to tackle crisis of coral bleaching
An international consortium of scientists has created the first-ever common framework for increasing comparability of research findings on coral bleaching.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Laura Arenschield
arenschield.2@osu.edu
Ohio State University

Public Release: 23-Nov-2020
Nature Chemistry
CCNY researchers overcome barriers for bio-inspired solar energy harvesting materials
Inspired by nature, researchers at The City College of New York (CCNY) can demonstrate a synthetic strategy to stabilize bio-inspired solar energy harvesting materials. Their findings, published in the latest issue of Nature Chemistry, could be a significant breakthrough in functionalizing molecular assemblies for future solar energy conversion technologies.
U.S. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, City College of New York Martin and Michele Cohen Fund for Science

Contact: Jay Mwamba
jmwamba@ccny.cuny.edu
917-892-0374
City College of New York

Public Release: 23-Nov-2020
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A
Growing interest in Moon resources could cause tension, scientists find
An international team of scientists led by the Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, has identified a problem with the growing interest in extractable resources on the moon: there aren't enough of them to go around. With no international policies or agreements to decide "who gets what from where," scientists believe tensions, overcrowding, and quick exhaustion of resources to be one possible future for moon mining projects. The paper published today in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A.
King's College London International Collaborations grant, Cosmological Visionaries project, Aspen Center for Physics, NSF grant, 2018 University of Missouri Research Board grant for the Aircraft, Spacecraft,and Statecraft

Contact: Amy Oliver
amy.oliver@cfa.harvard.edu
520-879-4406
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Public Release: 23-Nov-2020
Nature Communications
Understanding frustration could lead to better drugs
Atom-scale models of proteins that incorporate ligands, like drug molecules, shows a strong correlation between minimally frustrated binding sites and drug specificity. Such models could lead to better-designed drugs with fewer side effects.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jeff Falk
jfalk@rice.edu
713-348-6775
Rice University

Public Release: 23-Nov-2020
Nature Physics
Social bacteria build shelters using the physics of fingerprints
When starvation threatens, forest-dwelling Myxococcus xanthus bacteria work collectively to form fruiting bodies, spongy mushroom-like growths that promote survival. Princeton researchers have identified how these bacteria harness the same physical laws that lead to the whorls of a fingerprint to build the structures layer by layer.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, Human Frontier Science Program

Contact: Catherine Zandonella
czandone@princeton.edu
609-258-0541
Princeton University

Public Release: 20-Nov-2020
Science Advances
A long distance connection: polar climate affects trade wind strength in tropics
The impact of sea surface temperature variations in the tropical Pacific on global climate has long been recognized. For instance, the episodic warming of the tropical Pacific during El Niņo events causes melt of sea ice in far-reaching parts of the Southern Ocean via its effect on the global atmospheric circulation. A new study, published this week in the journal Science Advances by an international team, demonstrates that the opposite pathway exists as well.
National Research Foundation of Korea, Ministry of Science ICT and Future Planning, National Science Foundation

Contact: Marcie Grabowski
mworkman@hawaii.edu
808-956-3151
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 20-Nov-2020
Science Immunology
Gut-brain axis influences multiple sclerosis
A Basel-led international research team has discovered a connection between the intestinal flora and sites of inflammation in the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. A specific class of immune cell plays a central role in this newly identified gut-brain axis. The discovery could pave the way for new treatments for MS that target the intestinal flora.
National Multiple Sclerosis Society, Swiss National Science Foundation, Hertie Foundation, Valhalla Foundation

Contact: Anne-Katrin Proebstel
anne-katrin.proebstel@unibas.ch
41-615-565-798
University of Basel

Public Release: 19-Nov-2020
Nanoscale Horizons
Predicting forces between oddly shaped nanoparticles
Materials scientists at Duke University have devised a simplified method for calculating the forces that cause nanoparticles to self-assemble. With this new model and graphical user interface, researchers will be able to make previously impossible predictions about how nanoparticles with a wide variety of shapes will interact with one another. The new method offers opportunities for rationally designing such particles for a wide range of applications from harnessing solar energy to driving catalytic reactions.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Ken Kingery
ken.kingery@duke.edu
919-660-8414
Duke University

Public Release: 19-Nov-2020
JGR Oceans
Could kelp help relieve ocean acidification?
A new analysis of California's Monterey Bay evaluates kelp's potential to reduce ocean acidification, the harmful fallout from climate change on marine ecosystems and the food they produce for human populations.
ARCS Fellowship, NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Health Canada, National Science Foundation.

Contact: Danielle T. Tucker
dttucker@stanford.edu
650-497-9541
Stanford University

Public Release: 19-Nov-2020
Physics of Fluids
UCF researchers identify features that could make someone a virus super-spreader
In a study in Physics of Fluids, UCF researchers used computer-generated models to numerically simulate sneezes in different types of people and determine associations between people's physiological features and how far their sneeze droplets travel and linger in the air. They found that people's features, like a stopped-up nose or a full set of teeth, could increase their potential to spread viruses by affecting how far droplets travel when they sneeze.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert H Wells
robert.wells@ucf.edu
University of Central Florida

Public Release: 19-Nov-2020
Conference on Robot Learning
Showing robots how to drive a car...in just a few easy lessons
USC researchers have designed a system that lets robots autonomously learn complicated tasks from a very small number of demonstrations--even imperfect ones. While current state-of-art methods need at least 100 demonstrations to nail a specific task, this new method allows robots to learn from only a handful of demonstrations.
National Science Foundation, CPS grant, Toyota Motors North America R&D.

Contact: Amy Blumenthal
amyblume@usc.edu
917-710-1897
University of Southern California

Public Release: 19-Nov-2020
An app may make digital contact tracing for COVID-19 more private and secure
Engineers at Worcester Polytechnic Institute and Virginia Tech are collaborating on a smartphone app that can help conduct contact tracing needed to contain the spread of COVID-19 without risking users' privacy or personal security. Their work is funded by a one-year, $120,000 RAPID grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF).
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andy Baron
ajbaron@wpi.edu
978-235-3407
Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Public Release: 19-Nov-2020
NeurIPS conference
A neural network learns when it should not be trusted
MIT researchers have developed a way for deep learning neural networks to rapidly estimate confidence levels in their output. The advance could enhance safety and efficiency in AI-assisted decision making, with applications ranging from medical diagnosis to autonomous driving.
This work was supported, in part, by the National Science Foundation and Toyota Research Institute through the Toyota-CSAIL Joint Research Center.

Contact: Abby Abazorius
abbya@mit.edu
617-253-2709
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 19-Nov-2020
The Astrophysical Journal
VLA sky survey reveals newborn jets in distant galaxies
Comparing data from VLA sky surveys made some two decades apart revealed that the black hole-powered 'engines' at the cores of some distant galaxies have launched new, superfast jets of material during the interval between the surveys.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
dfinley@nrao.edu
575-835-7302
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 19-Nov-2020
Molecular Cell
Researchers peer inside deadly pathogen's burglary kit
The bacterium that causes the tick-borne disease tularemia is a lean, mean infecting machine. It carries a relatively small genome, and a unique set of infectious tools, including a collection of chromosomal genes called 'the pathogenicity island.' Structural insights from Cryo-EM microscopy, appearing Nov. 19 in Molecular Cell, point to a way in which the bacterium's unique infectious machinery might be blocked.
US National Institutes of Health, Department of Energy, National Science Foundation

Contact: Karl Leif Bates
karl.bates@duke.edu
919-681-8054
Duke University

Public Release: 19-Nov-2020
iScience
Very hungry and angry, caterpillars head-butt to get what they want
When food is scarce, monarch butterfly caterpillars go from docile to domineering. The results look something like a combination of boxing and "bumper" cars. The less food, the more likely caterpillars were to try to head-butt each other out of the way to get their fill, lunging and knocking aside other caterpillars to ensure their own survival. And, they are most aggressive right before the final stages of their metamorphosis.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Gisele Galoustian
ggaloust@fau.edu
561-985-4615
Florida Atlantic University

Public Release: 19-Nov-2020
iScience
The very hungry, angry caterpillars
In the absence of milkweed--their favorite food--monarch butterfly caterpillars (Danaus plexippus) go from peaceful feeders to aggressive fighters. Researchers reporting in the journal iScience on November 19 observed that caterpillars with less access to food were more likely to lunge at others to knock them aside, and caterpillars were most aggressive during the final stages before metamorphosis.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Miles Martin
press@cell.com
617-417-7053
Cell Press

Public Release: 18-Nov-2020
PLOS Biology
Bacteria convince their squid host to create a less hostile work environment
Bacteria living symbiotically within the Hawaiian bobtail squid can direct the host squid to change its normal gene-expression program to make a more inviting home, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Hawai'i.
National Institutes of Health--General Medical Sciences, and Allergies and Infectious Diseases; National Science Foundation Major Instrumentation Program

Contact: Marcie Grabowski
mworkman@hawaii.edu
808-956-3151
University of Hawaii at Manoa

Public Release: 18-Nov-2020
CSU team lands NSF award to study streams, snowpack in Cameron Peak Fire area
The team will study snowpack, streams and sediment in waterways in areas affected by the largest wildfire in Colorado history.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Mary Guiden
mary.guiden@colostate.edu
206-854-3786
Colorado State University

Public Release: 18-Nov-2020
PNAS
UIC researchers describe fundamental processes behind movement of magnetic particles
Researchers from the University of Illinois Chicago describe several fundamental processes associated with the motion of magnetic particles through fluids as they are pulled by a magnetic field.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Jackie Carey
jmcarey@uic.edu
312-996-8277
University of Illinois at Chicago

Public Release: 18-Nov-2020
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
For neural research, wireless chip shines light on the brain
Researchers have developed a chip that is powered wirelessly and can be surgically implanted to read neural signals and stimulate the brain with both light and electrical current. The technology has been demonstrated successfully in rats and is designed for use as a research tool.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Matt Shipman
matt_shipman@ncsu.edu
North Carolina State University

Showing releases 276-300 out of 1151.

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