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  News From the National Science Foundation
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Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 276-300 out of 886.

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Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
Scientific Reports
Sea sponges offer clues to how human-made structures can resist buckling
Brown University engineers looked to nature to find a shape that could improve all kinds of slender structures, from building columns to bicycle spokes -- they found an answer in sea sponges.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Kevin Stacey
Brown University

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
The Journal of the Optical Society of America B
Feature issue on nonlinear optics provides insight into field's latest ideas
A special feature of The Journal of the Optical Society of America B has been published called Nonlinear optics near the fundamental limit. It contains articles ranging from the fundamental, first principles analysis of the nonlinear response and its origins, to experimental work and is edited by Timothy J. Atherton of Tufts University, Ivan Biaggio of Lehigh University, and Koen Clays of KU Leuven, Belgium.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lori Friedman
Lehigh University

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
Nature Communications
Scientists discover a molecular motor has a 'gear' for directional switching
A study just published in Nature Communications offers a new understanding of the complex cellular machinery that animal and fungi cells use to ensure normal cell division, and scientists say it could one day lead to new treatment approaches for certain types of cancers.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Weihong Qiu
Oregon State University

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
229th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society
Fast radio burst tied to distant dwarf galaxy, and perhaps magnetar
Since first detected 10 years ago, fast radio bursts have puzzled astronomers. Unlike pulsars, they flash irregularly, most only once, and only for milliseconds. And they seem to come from outside the galaxy, meaning they are very energetic. A team of astronomers has now localized the only repeating burst, to a distant dwarf galaxy. UC Berkeley's Casey Law, who created the rapid data collection and analysis software on the VLA, sees a connection to magnetars.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Robert Sanders
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
229th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society
Precise location, distance provide breakthrough in study of fast radio bursts
Lone repeater among the mysterious Fast Radio Bursts is precisely located, enabling a world-wide team to find its host galaxy and determine its distance, marking a major advance in understanding these objects.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
280 million-year-old fossil reveals origins of chimaeroid fishes
High-definition CT scans of the fossilized skull of a 280 million-year-old fish reveal the origin of chimaeras, a group of cartilaginous fish related to sharks. Analysis of the brain case of Dwykaselachus oosthuizeni, a shark-like fossil from South Africa, shows telltale structures of the brain, major cranial nerves, nostrils and inner ear belonging to modern-day chimaeras.
National Science Foundation, National Research Foundation/ Department of Science and Technology South African Centre of Excellence in Palaeosciences, and NRF African Origins Programme

Contact: Matt Wood
University of Chicago Medical Center

Public Release: 4-Jan-2017
Science Robotics
Manufacturing platform makes intricate biocompatible micromachines
Columbia Engineering researchers have developed a way to manufacture microscale-sized machines from biomaterials that can safely be implanted in the body. Working with hydrogels, they have invented a new technique that stacks the soft material in layers to make devices that have three-dimensional, freely moving parts. The study demonstrates a fast manufacturing method they call 'implantable microelectromechanical systems.'
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Holly Evarts
Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
Songbirds divorce, flee, fail to reproduce due to suburban sprawl
New University of Washington research finds that for some songbirds, urban sprawl is kicking them out of their territory, forcing divorce and stunting their ability to find new mates and reproduce successfully, even after relocating.
National Science Foundation, University of Washington

Contact: Michelle Ma
University of Washington

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nanowire 'inks' enable paper-based printable electronics
Thin films made from silver nanowires are 4,000 times more conductive than films made from other nanoparticle shapes, like spheres or microflakes, says a new study by Duke University researchers. The results indicate that conductive 'inks' made from silver nanowires may create functioning electronic circuits without applying high temperatures, enabling printable electronics on heat-sensitive materials like paper or plastic.
National Science Foundation, Duke Chemistry GAANN Fellowship

Contact: Kara Manke
Duke University

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
Earth's Future
Tenfold jump in green tech needed to meet global emissions targets
The global spread of green technologies must quicken significantly to avoid future rebounds in climate-warming emissions, a Duke study shows. Based on the new calculations, the Paris Agreement's warming target of 2 degrees C won't be met unless clean technologies are developed and implemented at rates 10 times faster than in the past. Radically new strategies to implement technological advances are needed.
National Science Foundation, Duke WISeNet Program

Contact: Tim Lucas
Duke University

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
Nature Climate Change
Will climate change leave tropical birds hung out to dry?
The future of the red-capped manakin and other tropical birds in Panama looks bleak. A University of Illinois research project spanning more than three decades and simulating another five decades analyzes how changes in rainfall will affect bird populations. The results show that for 19 of the 20 species included in the study, there may be significantly fewer birds if conditions become dryer.
National Science Foundation, DOD/Legacy Resource Program, USDA/National Institute of Food and Agriculture, University of Illinois, and Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

Contact: Debra Levey Larson
University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rice U probes ways to turn cement's weakness to strength
Rice University scientists show how cement particles can handle stress by gradually passing it from one layer to the next and turning weakness to strength.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
Rice University

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
Nature Communications
One step closer to reality: Devices that convert heat into electricity
The same researchers who pioneered the use of a quantum mechanical effect to convert heat into electricity have figured out how to make their technique work in a form more suitable to industry.
National Science Foundation, US Army's Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative

Contact: Matt Schutte
Ohio State University

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
Journal of Climate
Study finds more extreme storms ahead for California
MIT scientists have found that extreme precipitation events in California should become more frequent as the Earth's climate warms over this century. The researchers developed a new technique that predicts the frequency of local, extreme rainfall events by identifying telltale large-scale patterns in atmospheric data.
National Science Foundation, NASA, and US Department of Energy

Contact: Abby Abazorius
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
IEEE Transactions in CAD
Streamlining the Internet of Things and other cyber-physical systems
In an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) keynote paper, computer engineers lay out a framework to improve research on cyber-physical systems. They encourage combining model-based design with data-based learning: in other words, merge two existing paradigms into one practice.
National Science Foundation, DARPA, Toyota Motor Corporation CHESS Center, TerraSwarm Research Center, Office of Naval Research

Contact: Allison Mills
Michigan Technological University

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
Earth and Planetary Science Letters
New study estimates frequency of flight-disrupting volcanic eruptions
Holidaymakers concerned about fresh volcanic eruptions causing flight-disrupting ash clouds across Northern Europe might be reassured by a study setting out the first reliable estimates of their frequency.
Natural Environment Research Council, National Science Foundation

Contact: Anna Martinez
University of Leeds

Public Release: 3-Jan-2017
Psychological Science
Detecting misinformation can improve memory later on
Exposure to false information about an event usually makes it more difficult for people to recall the original details, but new research suggests that there may be times when misinformation actually boosts memory. Research published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, shows that people who actually notice that the misinformation is inconsistent with the original event have better memory for the event compared with people who never saw the misinformation in the first place.
National Science Foundation, James S. McDonnell Foundation

Contact: Anna Mikulak
Association for Psychological Science

Public Release: 2-Jan-2017
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Research on dinosaur embryos reveals that eggs took 3 to 6 months to hatch
New research on the teeth of fossilized dinosaur embryos indicates that the eggs of non-avian dinosaurs took a long time to hatch --between about three and six months. The study finds that contrary to previous assumptions, dinosaur incubation is more similar to that of typical reptiles than of birds. The work suggests that prolonged incubation may have affected dinosaurs' ability to compete following the mass extinction event that occurred 65 million years ago.
National Science Foundation, Macaulay Family, and Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

Contact: Kendra Snyder
American Museum of Natural History

Public Release: 30-Dec-2016
Angewandte Chemie
University of Oregon lab creates new class of hydrogen sulfide donor molecules
Researchers have designed molecules with the potential to deliver healing power to stressed cells -- such as those involved in heart attacks. The research, at a cellular level in the lab, involves organic molecules that break down to release hydrogen sulfide when triggered by oxidative stress.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, Sloan Foundation, Dreyfus Foundation

Contact: Jim Barlow
University of Oregon

Public Release: 29-Dec-2016
Geophysical Research Letters
Flood threats changing across US
A University of Iowa study finds the threat of flooding is increasing in the northern half of the United States and declining in the South. The findings are based on water-height measurements at 2,042 stream and rivers, compared to NASA data showing the amount of water stored in the ground.
National Science Foundation, US Army Corps of Engineers Institute for Water Resources, University of Iowa

Contact: Richard
University of Iowa

Public Release: 29-Dec-2016
Cell Chemical Biology
Scripps Florida scientists develop drug discovery approach to predict health impact of endocrine-disruptors
Breast cancer researchers from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have developed a novel approach for identifying how chemicals in the environment -- called environmental estrogens -- can produce infertility, abnormal reproductive development, including 'precocious puberty,' and promote breast cancer.
National Institutes of Health, The BallenIsles Men's Golf Association, The Frenchman's Creek Women for Cancer Research, The National Science Foundation, the University of Michigan

Contact: Madeline McCurry-Schmidt
Scripps Research Institute

Public Release: 29-Dec-2016
Image-based modeling
Novel and realistic simulation tool combining high resolution biomedical imaging and supercomputer computational fluid dynamics results in ability to model the exact hydrodynamic microenvironment experienced by cells cultured in bone tissue engineering scaffolds.
National Science Foundation, Gustavus and Louise Pfeiffer Research Foundation

Contact: CHEW Mun Kit
World Scientific

Public Release: 29-Dec-2016
Off-switch for CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system discovered
UC San Francisco researchers have discovered a way to switch off the widely used CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing system using newly identified anti-CRISPR proteins that are produced by bacterial viruses. The technique has the potential to improve the safety and accuracy of CRISPR applications both in the clinic and for basic research.
Sandler Foundation, National Science Foundation, Foundation for AIDS Research, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Nicholas Weiler
University of California - San Francisco

Public Release: 29-Dec-2016
New tool shines light on protein condensation in living cells
Researchers have unveiled a new tool that uses light to manipulate proteins inside cells, causing liquid-like structures known as membraneless organelles to condense out of a cell's watery environment. Because these structures play a critical role in cellular operations, and possibly in disease development, the researchers believe the tool will open new areas of cellular biology to exploration.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation

Contact: Steven Schultz
Princeton University, Engineering School

Public Release: 26-Dec-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Researchers map how the brain processes faces from sight to recognition
Researchers used highly sophisticated brain imaging tools and computational methods to measure the real-time brain processes that convert the appearance of a face into the recognition of an individual. They are hopeful that the findings might be used in the near future to locate the exact point at which the visual perception system breaks down in different disorders and injuries, ranging from developmental dyslexia to prosopagnosia, or face blindness.
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Pennsylvania Department of Health's Commonwealth Universal Research Enhancement Program and the National Science Foundation

Contact: Shilo Rea
Carnegie Mellon University

Showing releases 276-300 out of 886.

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