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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 301-325 out of 869.

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Public Release: 21-Dec-2016
ACS Synthetic Biology
Molecular Velcro boosts microalgae's potential in biofuel, industrial applications
Michigan State University scientists have engineered 'molecular Velcro' into to cyanobacteria, boosting this microalgae's biofuel viability as well as its potential for other research.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy

Contact: Layne Cameron
layne.cameron@cabs.msu.edu
517-353-8819
Michigan State University

Public Release: 21-Dec-2016
International Workshop on the Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics
Driverless platoons
MIT engineers have studied a simple vehicle-platooning scenario and determined the best ways to deploy vehicles in order to save fuel and minimize delays. Their analysis, presented this week at the International Workshop on the Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics, shows that relatively simple, straightforward schedules may be the optimal approach for saving fuel and minimizing delays for autonomous vehicle fleets. The findings may also apply to conventional long-distance trucking and even ride-sharing services.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
abbya@mit.edu
617-253-2709
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 21-Dec-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Scientists crack genetic code determining leaf shape in cotton
Researchers know that the variation in leaf shapes can mean big differences in a farmer's bottom line. Now, a new discovery gives plant breeders key genetic information they need to develop crop varieties that make the most of these leaf-shape differences.
National Science Foundation, Cotton Inc., North Carolina Cotton Growers Assn.

Contact: Vasu Kuraparthy
vasu_kuraparthy@ncsu.edu
919-515-4063
North Carolina State University

Public Release: 21-Dec-2016
Nature
A fertilizer dearth foiled animal evolution for eons?
Earth was inhospitable to complex life for billions of years, practically suffocating evolution in a nearly oxygen-free environment. Then came a shift in phosphorus concentrations to ocean shallows, and after that, the evolution of complex life exploded.
National Science Foundation, NASA/Astrobiology Institute, Sloan Foundation, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

Contact: Ben Brumfield
ben.brumfield@comm.gatech.edu
404-660-1408
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 21-Dec-2016
Neuron
Distinctive brain pattern may underlie dyslexia
A distinctive neural signature found in the brains of people with dyslexia may explain why these individuals have difficulty learning to read, according to a new study from MIT neuroscientists.
Ellison Medical Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and National Science Foundation

Contact: Abby Abazorius
abbya@mit.edu
617-253-2709
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 20-Dec-2016
Nano Letters
Bright future for energy devices
A new material invented by Michigan Technological University researchers embeds sodium metal in carbon and could improve electrode performance in energy devices. The team ran tests on the sodium-embedded carbon and it performed better than graphene in dye-sensitized solar cells and supercapacitors.
National Science Foundation, Robert A. Welch Foundation

Contact: Allison Mills
awmills@mtu.edu
906-487-2343
Michigan Technological University

Public Release: 20-Dec-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Computer models find ancient solutions to modern problems
Washington State University archaeologists are at the helm of new research using sophisticated computer technology to learn how past societies responded to climate change. Their work, which links ancient climate and archaeological data, could help modern communities identify new crops and other adaptive strategies when threatened by drought, extreme weather and other environmental challenges.
National Science Foundation, Henry Luce and American Council of Learned Societies Foundation

Contact: Jade d'Alpoim Guedes
jade.dalpoimguedes@wsu.edu
857-600-6485
Washington State University

Public Release: 20-Dec-2016
Astrophysical Journal
VLA, ALMA team up to give first look at birthplaces of most current stars
VLA and ALMA show distant galaxies seen as they were when most of today's stars were being born, answering longstanding questions about mechanisms of star formation billions of years ago.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Dave Finley
dfinley@nrao.edu
575-835-7302
National Radio Astronomy Observatory

Public Release: 20-Dec-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Good news and bad news about forest fragmentation
New England forests may be more sensitive to climate change than previously suggested.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, National Science Foundation

Contact: Kira Jastive
kjastive@bu.edu
617-358-1240
Boston University

Public Release: 20-Dec-2016
Interface
Heart valves strive to get oxygen one way or another
Rice University scientists investigate the ways oxygen permeates heart valves and the role hypoxia plays in valve diseases.
National Science Foundation, American Heart Association

Contact: David Ruth
david@rice.edu
713-348-6327
Rice University

Public Release: 20-Dec-2016
Cell Reports
Aging and cancer: An enzyme protects chromosomes from oxidative damage
EPFL scientists have identified a protein that caps chromosomes during cell division and protect them from oxidative damage and shortening, which are associated with aging and cancer.
Swiss National Science Foundation, NCCR, European Commission Seventh Framework Programme (CodeAge), Swiss Cancer League, EPFL

Contact: Nik Papageorgiou
n.papageorgiou@epfl.ch
41-216-932-105
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Public Release: 20-Dec-2016
Nature Communications
Laser pulses help scientists tease apart complex electron interactions
Using a new laser-driven 'stop-action' technique for studying complex electron interactions under dynamic conditions, scientists have identified an unusual form of energy loss in a material related to superconductors.
DOE/Office of Science, National Science Foundation, Aspen Center for Physics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program, Georgetown University/McDevitt Bequest

Contact: Karen McNulty Walsh
kmcnulty@bnl.gov
631-344-8350
DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory

Public Release: 19-Dec-2016
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology
UMN researchers provide molecular portraits of a new cancer drug target
Unprecedented images of cancer genome-mutating enzymes acting on DNA provide vital clues into how the enzymes work to promote tumor evolution and drive poor disease outcomes. These images, revealed by University of Minnesota researchers, provide the first ever high-resolution pictures of molecular complexes formed between DNA and the human APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B enzymes.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Stephanie Xenos
sxenos@umn.edu
612-624-8723
University of Minnesota

Public Release: 19-Dec-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
White matter structure in the brain predicts cognitive function at ages 1 and 2
A new study led by University of North Carolina School of Medicine researchers concluded that patterns of white matter microstructure present at birth and that develop after birth predict the cognitive function of children at ages 1 and 2.
NIH/National Institute of Mental Health, NIH/National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Science Foundation

Contact: Tom Hughes
Tom.Hughes@unchealth.unc.edu
984-974-1151
University of North Carolina Health Care

Public Release: 19-Dec-2016
Developmental Psychology
With eyes or noses? How young children use sensory cues to make social decisions
New research from the Monell Center reveals that children begin using olfactory information to help guide their responses to emotionally-expressive faces at about five years of age. The findings advance understanding of how children integrate different types of sensory information to direct their social behavior.
National Science Foundation, National Living Laboratory

Contact: Leslie Stein
stein@monell.org
267-519-4707
Monell Chemical Senses Center

Public Release: 19-Dec-2016
Scientific Reports
New prehistoric bird species discovered
A team of scientists at the University of Rochester has discovered a new species of bird in the Canadian Arctic. At approximately 90 million years old, the bird fossils are among the oldest avian records found in the northernmost latitude, and offer further evidence of an intense warming event during the late Cretaceous period.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lindsey Valich
lvalich@ur.rochester.edu
585-276-6264
University of Rochester

Public Release: 19-Dec-2016
Journal of Geophysical Research
Satellites observe 'traffic jams' in Antarctic Ice Stream caused by tides
Nine months of continual radar observation reveals the complex changing patterns of ice stream movement in three dimensions that can inform predictions for the speed at which the ice caps will respond to a warming climate.
NASA, National Science Foundation, Albert Parvin Foundation, and Achievement Rewards for College Scientists (ARCS) Foundation

Contact: Robert Perkins
rperkins@caltech.edu
626-395-1862
California Institute of Technology

Public Release: 19-Dec-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Mimicking biological movements with soft robots
Designing a soft robot to move organically -- to bend like a finger or twist like a wrist -- has always been a process of trial and error. Now, Harvard researchers have developed a method to automatically design soft actuators based on the desired movement.
National Science Foundation, Materials Research Science and Engineering Center

Contact: Leah Burrows
lburrows@seas.harvard.edu
617-496-1351
Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Public Release: 19-Dec-2016
Nature Genetics
CRISPR screening identifies potential HIV treatment targets
Targeting human genes required for HIV infection but not T cell survival may avoid inducing treatment resistance
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Institutes of Health, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Science Foundation, MIT Whitaker Health Sciences Fund, UCSF Sandler Fellowship, Harvard University Center for AIDS Research, Deutsche Forsch

Contact: Merrill Meadow
mmeadow@wi.mit.edu
339-223-7307
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research

Public Release: 16-Dec-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Turning therapeutic antibodies inside-out to fight cancer
Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have camels and llamas to thank for their development of a new cancer treatment that is highly selective in blocking the action of faulty matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Sarah Nightingale
sarah.nightingale@ucr.edu
951-827-4580
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 16-Dec-2016
Nature Chemical Biology
Tuberculosis virulence factor identified, may be target for new drug
Scientists have discovered the mechanism that hijacks the immune system's response to tuberculosis, revealing an important new drug target for the disease that kills more than 1 million people each year.
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, National Science Foundation, Camille and Dreyfus Foundation

Contact: Amy Patterson Neubert
apatterson@purdue.edu
765-494-9723
Purdue University

Public Release: 16-Dec-2016
Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems
Rice, Baylor team sets new mark for 'deep learning'
Artificial intelligence and neuroscience experts from Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine have taken inspiration from the human brain in creating a new 'deep learning' method that enables computers to learn about the visual world largely on their own, much as human babies do.
Director of National Intelligence's Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity, National Science Foundation, Air Force Office of Science and Research, Army Research Office, Office of Naval Research

Contact: David Ruth
david@rice.edu
713-348-6327
Rice University

Public Release: 16-Dec-2016
Psychological Science
Internet use in class tied to lower test scores
Warning: surfing the internet in class is now linked to poorer test scores, even among the most intelligent and motivated of students.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Andy Henion
henion@msu.edu
517-355-3294
Michigan State University

Public Release: 16-Dec-2016
Applied Physics Letters
Movable microplatform floats on a sea of droplets
A platform floating on tiny droplets, using hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, could provide precise motion control for optical devices, MEMS and other systems.
Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Karl-Lydie Jean-Baptiste
kjeanbap@mit.edu
617-253-1682
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Public Release: 15-Dec-2016
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Astronomers discover dark past of planet-eating 'Death Star'
An international team of scientists, including researchers from the University of Chicago, has made the rare discovery of a planetary system with a host star similar to Earth's sun. Especially intriguing is the star's unusual composition, which indicates it ingested some of its planets.
São Paulo Research Foundation, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, National Science Foundation, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Australian Research Council

Contact: Greg Borzo
gborzo@comcast.net
312-636-8968
University of Chicago

Showing releases 301-325 out of 869.

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