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  News From the National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation (NSF) — For more information about NSF and its programs, visit www.nsf.gov

NSF Funded News

Key: Meeting M      Journal J      Funder F

Showing releases 326-350 out of 840.

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Public Release: 11-Jul-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Changes in primate teeth linked to rise of monkeys
UC Berkeley's Leslea Hlusko searches for simple inherited dental characteristics that could lead to genes controlling tooth development, and has ucovered an easy-to-measure trait that tracks primate evolution over the last 20 million years, shedding light on the mysterious decline of apes and the rise of monkeys 8 million years ago. She concludes that monkeys diversified and took over the dentition niche of the majority of apes. Apes with outlying dentition, including human ancestors, remained.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Robert Sanders
rlsanders@berkeley.edu
510-643-6998
University of California - Berkeley

Public Release: 8-Jul-2016
Scientific Reports
Ultrashort cell-free DNA reveals health of organ transplants
When cells die, whether through apoptosis or necrosis, the DNA and other molecules found in those cells don't just disappear. They wind up in the blood stream, where degraded bits and pieces can be extracted.
National Science Foundation, Noyce Foundation

Contact: Daryl Lovell
dal296@cornell.edu
607-254-4799
Cornell University

Public Release: 8-Jul-2016
Nature Materials
Setting the gold standard
A team of University of Florida researchers has figured out how gold can be used in crystals grown by light to create nanoparticles, a discovery that has major implications for industry and cancer treatment and could improve the function of pharmaceuticals, medical equipment and solar panels.
Air Force Office of Science Research, National Science Foundation

Contact: Wei David Wei
wwei@mail.ufl.edu
352-392-2050
University of Florida

Public Release: 8-Jul-2016
Nature Communications
A 'time switch' in the brain improves sense of smell 
When the brain processes olfactory stimuli, it differentiates between similar smells using subtly modulated signals. Brain examinations and behavioral studies in mice have now shown that neurons with inhibiting characteristics play a key role in this process.
German Research Foundation, NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence, European Research Council, Swiss National Science Foundation, Boehringer Ingelheim Fonds

Contact: Vera Glaßer
vera.glasser@mdc-berlin.de
49-309-406-2120
Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association

Public Release: 7-Jul-2016
Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation
Sensing trouble: A new way to detect hidden damage in bridges, roads
University of Delaware engineers Erik Thostenson and Thomas Schumacher have documented a new approach for monitoring the structural health of roads, bridges and other structures. The method, which applies a noninvasive medical imaging technique to a carbon nanotube-based sensor, is reported in the Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation. , is documented in a paper published in the Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation in June.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Peter Bothum
pbothum@udel.edu
302-831-1418
University of Delaware

Public Release: 7-Jul-2016
Research aims to grasp complexities in plant-pollinator networks across tallgrass prairies
University of Kansas graduate student Kathy Denning has earned a grant from the National Science Foundation to support research centering on molecular genetic analysis of pollen grains recovered from bees across 10 prairie sites in Kansas.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Brendan M. Lynch
brendan@ku.edu
785-864-8855
University of Kansas

Public Release: 7-Jul-2016
Nano Letters
University of Illinois researchers demonstrate tunable wetting and adhesion of graphene
Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated doping-induced tunable wetting and adhesion of graphene, revealing new and unique opportunities for advanced coating materials and transducers. The study suggests for the first time that the doping-induced modulation of the charge carrier density in graphene influences its wettability and adhesion.
Air Force Office of Scientific Research/Asian Office of Aerospace Research Development, National Science Foundation

Contact: SungWoo Nam
swnam@illinois.edu
217-300-0267
University of Illinois College of Engineering

Public Release: 7-Jul-2016
Science
New clues could help scientists harness the power of photosynthesis
A discovery has been made that could enable scientists to design better ways to use light energy and to engineer crop plants that more efficiently harness the energy of the Sun. The identification of a gene needed to expand light harvesting in photosynthesis into the far-red-light spectrum provides clues to the evolution of oxygen-producing photosynthesis, an evolutionary advance that changed the history of life on Earth.
National Science Foundation, US Department of Energy, European Commission Marie Skodowska-Curie Global Fellowship

Contact: Barbara K. Kennedy
science@psu.edu
814-863-4682
Penn State

Public Release: 7-Jul-2016
Current Biology
Like humans, lowly cockroach uses a GPS to get around, scientists find
Rats, men and cockroaches appear to have a similar GPS in their heads that allows them to navigate new surroundings, researchers at Case Western Reserve University report.
National Science Foundation

Contact: William Lubinger
wxl289@case.edu
216-368-4443
Case Western Reserve University

Public Release: 7-Jul-2016
Science
Newly discovered planet has 3 suns
A team of astronomers led by the University of Arizona has discovered a planet in a unique position between three stars. The finding shows that massive planets may be found on long and possibly unstable orbits in multi-star systems, expanding current models of how star systems and their planets form.
National Science Foundation, European Southern Observatory, European Commission/Sixth and Seventh Framework Programmes

Contact: Daniel Stolte
stolte@email.arizona.edu
520-626-4402
University of Arizona

Public Release: 7-Jul-2016
Science
Researchers improve catalyst efficiency for clean industries
Researchers have developed a way to use less platinum in chemical reactions commonly used in the clean energy, green chemicals, and automotive industries, according to a paper in Science.
National Science Foundation, DOE/Office of Basic Energy Sciences, General Motors

Contact: Tina Hilding, WSU College of Engineering and Architecture
thilding@wsu.edu
509-335-5095
Washington State University

Public Release: 7-Jul-2016
Science
Robot helps study how first land animals moved 360 million years ago
When early terrestrial animals began moving about on mud and sand 360 million years ago, the powerful tails they used as fish may have been more important than scientists previously realized. That's one conclusion from a new study of African mudskipper fish and a robot modeled on the animal.
National Science Foundation, Army Research Office, Army Research Laboratory

Contact: John Toon
jtoon@gatech.edu
404-894-6986
Georgia Institute of Technology

Public Release: 6-Jul-2016
Optica
A sharper focus for plasmonic lasers
Lehigh University researcher Sushil Kumar and his group have demonstrated that it is possible to induce plasmonic lasers to emit a narrow beam of light by adapting a technique called distributed feedback. They have experimentally implemented a scheme for terahertz plasmonic lasers that emit radiation at extremely long wavelengths (approximately 100 microns). Their results have been published today in an article in Optica, the journal of the Optical Society of America.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Lori Friedman
lof214@lehigh.edu
610-758-3224
Lehigh University

Public Release: 6-Jul-2016
11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security
Your smartwatch is giving away your ATM PIN
Wearable devices can give away your passwords, according to new research. In the paper 'Friend or Foe?: Your Wearable Devices Reveal Your Personal PIN' scientists from Binghamton University and the Stevens Institute of Technology combined data from embedded sensors in wearable technologies, such as smartwatches and fitness trackers, along with a computer algorithm to crack private PINs and passwords with 80-percent accuracy on the first try and more than 90-percent accuracy after three tries.
National Science Foundation, United States Army Research Office

Contact: Yan Wang
yanwang@binghamton.edu
607-777-4835
Binghamton University

Public Release: 6-Jul-2016
Atmospheric Environment
Bees' ability to forage decreases as air pollution increases
Air pollutants interact with and break down plant-emitted scent molecules, which insect pollinators use to locate needed food, according to a team of researchers led by Penn State. The pollution-modified plant odors can confuse bees and, as a result, bees' foraging time increases and pollination efficiency decreases. This happens because the chemical interactions decrease both the scent molecules' life spans and the distances they travel.
National Science Foundation

Contact: A'ndrea Elyse Messer
aem1@psu.edu
814-865-9481
Penn State

Public Release: 6-Jul-2016
Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security
It's automatic: CMU smartphone app manages your privacy preferences
A field study suggests a personalized privacy assistant app being developed at Carnegie Mellon University can simplify the chore of setting privacy permissions for your smartphone apps. That's a task that requires well over a hundred decisions, an unmanageable number for the typical user.
National Science Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Air Force Research Laboratory

Contact: Byron Spice
bspice@cs.cmu.edu
412-268-9068
Carnegie Mellon University

Public Release: 6-Jul-2016
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Chemical trail on Titan may be key to prebiotic conditions
Cornell scientists have uncovered a chemical trail that suggests prebiotic conditions may exist on Saturn's moon, Titan.
John Templeton Foundation, National Science Foundation

Contact: Daryl Lovell
dal296@cornell.edu
607-592-3925
Cornell University

Public Release: 6-Jul-2016
Genetics
'Omics' data improves breast cancer survival prediction
Precise predictions of whether a tumor is likely to spread would help clinicians and patients choose the best course of treatment. But current methods fall short of the precision needed. New research reveals that profiling primary tumor samples using genomic technologies can improve the accuracy of breast cancer survival predictions compared to clinical information alone. The study was published in the journal GENETICS, a publication of the Genetics Society of America.
National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, American Cancer Society, University of Alabama at Birmingham-Comprehensive Cancer Center

Contact: Cristy Gelling
cgelling@thegsajournals.org
412-478-3537
Genetics Society of America

Public Release: 6-Jul-2016
Chemical Communications
Synthesis of complex molecules displaying potential biological and catalytic activity
Nagoya Institute of Technology researchers recently used the catalytic Mannich reaction to synthesize vicinal tetrasubstituted chiral imidazolines from non-activated starting materials for the first time.
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas 'Advanced Molecular Transformations by Organocatalysts' from MEXT

Contact: Kuniaki Shiraki
nitechura@adm.nitech.ac.jp
81-527-357-424
Nagoya Institute of Technology

Public Release: 6-Jul-2016
Pediatrics
For kids with asthma, hospital care is comparable for Medicaid and non-Medicaid patients
Children covered by Medicaid and equally sick children not covered by Medicaid received essentially similar asthma treatment in a given pediatric hospital, according to a new study. In a national sample, researchers analyzed hospital practice patterns by comparing inpatient costs, lengths of stay and use of the intensive care unit.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Science Foundation

Contact: John Ascenzi
Ascenzi@email.chop.edu
267-426-6055
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Public Release: 5-Jul-2016
Astrobiology
Lush Venus? Searing Earth? It could have happened
It may not have taken much in the early solar system to set Earth and Venus on very different paths, according to Rice University researchers and their colleagues. A new paper points the way toward what scientists should consider as they seek habitable planets elsewhere in the galaxy.
National Science Foundation

Contact: David Ruth
david@rice.edu
713-348-6327
Rice University

Public Release: 5-Jul-2016
BMC Evolutionary Biology
Eye of the beetle: How the Emerald Ash Borer sees may be key to stopping it
This iridescent jewel beetle, responsible for the death of more than 50 million ash trees in the United States, has blazed an absolute path of destruction west since its discovery in Michigan in 2002. Recently the pest has been detected in Colorado, and just this spring it was confirmed in Nebraska and Texas. Researchers at BYU have been doing more than just watching the migration patterns--they've been studying the creature in hopes of helping to slow it.
NSF/Division of Environmental Biology

Contact: Todd Hollingshead
toddh@byu.edu
801-422-8373
Brigham Young University

Public Release: 5-Jul-2016
Nature Nanotechnology
Integrated trio of 2-D nanomaterials unlocks graphene electronics applications
Titled 'An integrated Tantalum Sulfide--Boron Nitride--Graphene Oscillator: A Charge-Density-Wave Device Operating at Room Temperature,' the paper describes the development of the first useful device that exploits the potential of charge-density waves to modulate an electrical current through a 2-D material. The new technology could become an ultralow power alternative to conventional silicon-based devices, which are used in thousands of applications from computers to clocks to radios.
National Science Foundation, Semiconductor Research Corporation Nanoelectronic Research Initiative, Semiconductor Research Corporation, Defense Advanced Research Project Agency, others

Contact: Sarah Nightingale
sarah.nightingale@ucr.edu
951-827-4580
University of California - Riverside

Public Release: 5-Jul-2016
American Journal of Botany
Learning about the hummingbirds and the bees in floral diversity
The floral diversity and repeated shifts in pollination have inspired a series of scientists to study adaptive evolution in the genus. But until now many of the species relationships have been unresolved and hampered by the very thing that makes studying the genus so appealing. The rapid speciation and evolutionary radiation that makes studying adaptation in these groups so interesting have also meant the species relationships have been difficult to resolve -- until now.
National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health

Contact: Richard Hund
rhund@botany.org
314-577-9557
Botanical Society of America

Public Release: 5-Jul-2016
Psychological Science
Study: How we explain things influences what we think is right
New research focuses on a fundamental human habit: When trying to explain something (why people give roses for Valentine's Day, for example), we often focus on the traits of the thing itself (roses are pretty) and not its context (advertisers promote roses). In a new study, researchers found that people who tend to focus on 'inherent traits' and ignore context also are more likely to assume that the patterns they see around them are good.
National Science Foundation

Contact: Diana Yates
diya@illinois.edu
217-333-5802
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Showing releases 326-350 out of 840.

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